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ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH IN URBAN INFORMAL SETTLEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF (ABORU, IPAJA, AYOBO, EGBEDA, IDUMU), LAGOS

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 115 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   415 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Nigeria as a country is one among the most populated in Africa with a total land area of 983,213 square Kilometres of which 773,783sq. kilometres are in the savanna zones 75,707sq. Kilometers are in the derived savanna zones and 133,717 square kilometers are in the forest zone.

According to (NBS, 2010) Nigerian population is more than 120 million yielding an average density of more than 120persons per square kilometer. Although this density may vary from one region to another, it is obvious that Nigeria is already experiencing high population density. The interaction of these millions of Nigerians with their respective environment has left indelible mark on the landscape. The manifestation of these impacts includes; urbanization, deforestation, desertification, overpopulation and all kinds of pollution is seen in most areas in Nigeria especially the low income environment. High rates of urbanization have resulted in drastic demographic, economic, land use and climate changes. The growth and expansion of our urban centers entail the construction of new roads, buildings, and other various human made structures to accommodate the growing population, and in turn, the destruction of the natural ground cover and landscape.

According to Larson B.A, (2006) stated that the poorer people tend to suffer from the hazards of environmental pollution. The environmental threats facing poor people tend to be more directly hazardous to human health. Moreover, poverty in itself worsens the effects of unhealthy environments, as malnutrition, beyond being a problem in itself, exacerbates vulnerability to disease. In addition, the death or illness of an income earner may further exacerbate conditions of poverty and have far reaching effects on the survival of the rest of the family.

Environment and health improvements, along with poverty alleviation, are complementary goals. Indeed, for poor people, more resources and greater control over their lives will lead to improvements in local environments and human health, particularly for children. Improved environmental services and cleaner surroundings, as well as better health care and education, are conducive to poverty alleviation and increased well-being. Indeed, initiatives leading to better household environments may be the most worthwhile for raising the standard of living of poorer groups of people in the world (Chilton S, 2010).

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Nigeria as a country is blessed with a good natural environment but the unwise use of the resources from this natural environment due to ignorance, poverty, overpopulation and greed amongst others has led to the degradation of the environment; the outcome of these activities like air pollution, climate change, water pollution etc. may have significant effect on the human health. The people in the urban informal settlement like Ayobo, Aboru, Ipaja, Egbeda and Idimu in Lagos State experience it the most due to overpopulation. Secondly there have been series of research on environmental pollution but not even a single study has been carried out on the environmental problems and human health in urban informal settlement in Nigeria. It is to this regard that the researcher desire to examine environmental problems and human health in urban informal settlement

1.3 AIM AND OBJECIVES OF THE STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine environmental problems and human health in urban informal settlement. Other specific objectives of the study are:

  1. to determine the effect of environmental exposure to complex chemical mixtures on human health in urban informal settlement
  2. to determine the effect of household dispose of its garbage on human health in (Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu) in Lagos State.
  3. to examine the state of neighborhood environment that might lead to ill health
  4. to determine the effect of environmental degradation on human health in urban informal settlement

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives. The research questions are:

  1. What is the effect of environmental exposure to complex chemical mixtures on human health in urban informal settlement?
  2. What is effect of household dispose of its garbage on human health in (Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu) in Lagos State?
  3. What is the state of neighborhood environment that might lead to ill health?
  4. What is the effect of environmental degradation on human health in urban informal settlement?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Hypothesis 1

H0: environmental exposure to complex chemical mixtures has no significant effect on human health

H1: environmental exposure to complex chemical mixtures has significant effect on human health

Hypothesis 2

H0: the state of neighborhood environment in Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu) in Lagos State is bad

H1: the state of neighborhood environment in (Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu) Lagos State is good

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on environmental problems and human health in urban informal settlement will be of immense benefit to Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu areas of Lagos State because the findings of the study will educate the inhabitants of these areas on the effect of environment on human health. The study will also educate the people on other factors like source of water, exposure to chemical mixtures, and state of refuse disposal that cause ill health and also educate the people on hygiene. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research

1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

  The study will cover environmental problems and human health in urban informal settlement in these four areas; Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu in Lagos state.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

Environment: The environment in accordance to the study is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of the people in Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu areas of Lagos State, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution

Health: Health is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of people in Aboru, Ipaja, Ayobo, Egbeda and Idimu areas of Lagos State.

Degradation: the condition or process of degrading or being degraded.

Refuse waste: garbage and rubbish. Garbage is mostly decomposable food waste; rubbish is mostly dry material such as glass, paper, cloth, or wood.

Hygiene: conditions or practices conducive to maintaining health and preventing disease, especially through cleanliness.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:115
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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