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IMPACT OF POOR DRAINAGE SYSTEM AND FLOODS CONTROL IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF LOKO GOMA COMMUNUNITY ABUJA FCT)

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract ::   1,548 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Environmental disasters have become common phenomenon in the world, (Oyegbile, 2008). According to him, from China to Mexico, Indonesia, United States of America, United Kingdom and Nigeria, there is no doubt that the world is under serious threat from the environment. But analysts have argued that the environment was only responding to the abuses heaped on it by man’s activities (Christopherson, 2007 p.423). This has created a great burden for world leaders which is why the issue of environment ran neck and neck with matters of economy and poverty at the last meeting of the eight world’s most developed economies otherwise known as the G8 submit in Japan. The concern is that the world may be getting close to extinction through natural disasters unless immediate actions are taken; and the signs are just too apparent to be ignored (Christopherson, 2007 and Oyegbile, 2008). Specifically, in May 2008, floods triggered by torrential rains killed dozens of people across China, while thousands of others were victims of landslides caused by the downpours. China is not alone. In the United States of America, the Mississippi River caused lots of damages put at several millions of dollars when it over flew its banks,

Floods are the most recurring, widespread, disastrous and frequent natural hazards of the world. It is worthy to note that all floods are not alike, while some floods develop slowly and last for a period of days; flash floods can develop quickly, sometimes in just a few minutes and without any visible signs of rain flooding some cities, towns, farmlands and major industrial installations over a distance of about 250km and ravaging Iowa before it heaped downstream. The occurrence of flood represents a major risk to riversides populations and floodplains, in addition to causing substantial impacts on the environment, including aquatic fauna and flora, and bank erosion. Flooding is becoming an increasingly severe and more frequent problem in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the impact is more felt by the urban poor in such a way that recovery is unlikely to be achieved without external aid (Blaikie, 2004).

Presently, about 2.6 billion people are living without proper sanitation, of which Africa is not exempted (Olukanni, 2013a; WHO/UNICEF, 2012). The need to provide proper drainage and sanitation facilities is essential to match up with the ever increasing population growth (Banerjee and Morella, 2011). The increase in the population of a settlement and the attendant growth of the needs of the residents in both quantity and variety, bring about intensive exploitation of the resources of the environment. Such exploitation might increase to a level that the resources would not be able to sustain the population, and in some cases the environment would collapse resulting in serious environmental problems (Asoegwu, 2009). This is further buttressed by Belete (2011) who expressed that high urban population growth rate also results in drainage system challenges because an increase in population requires a proportionate increase in infrastructure (roads and drainage systems) of which when not properly catered for, the facilities will be imperfect. Also, inadequate integration between road and urban storm water drainage can be attributed to natural causes such as intense rainfall, flat topography and poor soil infiltration or man-made causes such as improperly laid and graded street, poor and inefficient drainage facilities that aggravate the flooding problem (Jimoh, 2008).

Urban environments in Nigeria are faced with myriad of issues regarding poor drainage systems (Offiong et al., 2009) and water tight structures which are the major causes of flooding (Belete, 2011). Urban flooding which is the inundation of land or property in a built environment, particularly in more crowded areas are caused by rainfall overwhelming the capacity of drainage systems. Although this is sometimes caused by events such as flash flooding (Tucci, 2001).

Urban flooding is a condition characterized by its repetitive and systemic impacts on communities whether or not the affected communities are located within floodplains or near any body of water (CNT, 2013). Sule (2001) described Lagos, Abuja, Calabar and Ibadan as cities where houses are constructed directly on drain channels and that this practice has resulted to blockage of storm drains and consequently leading to overflow and flooding of streets.

Drainage systems are constructed to ensure that waste water and sewage is transported neatly to disposal points, thereby keeping the environment well drained and free of waste. Examples of components that make up a good drainage system includes; closed ditches having pipe drains, drainage pipes, channels and conduits.
Sustainable Drainage Systems are approaches put in place to manage the water quantity (flooding), water quality (pollution) and amenity issues in the environment. Sustainable drainage is a concept that includes long term environmental and social factors in decisions about drainage.

Poorly maintained drainage systems and poor waste management habits can adversely affect our environment in the following ways;

i. Flooding: The immediate effects of flooding include loss of human life, damage to property, destruction of crops and other plants, loss of livestock

ii. Erosion: The absence of good drainage systems can cause erosion problems. This has been experienced in many areas of Nigeria, where roads have been washed away and gullies created as a result of flooding.

iii. Diseases: Deterioration of health is another effect of flooding, due to the increase in waterborne diseases and unsanitary conditions. Stagnation of water occurs when water passages are blocked. This makes the people around such environments susceptible to infections from mosquitoes and other insects. We are exposed to numerous air and water borne diseases if we have our environments polluted with stagnant water.

In the past year Loko Goma community faced extensive water logging during the rainy season (July to September) as result of a serious problem of poor drainage. Inadequate drainage problems become one of the most common sources of compliant from the residents in Loko Goma community and this problem is becoming worse every year. Poor existing drains and their improper operation and management mainly cause severe flooding which creates a lot of damages.

In addition, deceases are spread and give problems to the population such as malaria and diarrhea. This critical situation was severely aggravated because the natural drainage system, which conveys storm runoff from the areas to the river were not fully operated and the existing drains blocked with huge amount of garbage, solid waste, silt sand accumulation and vegetation.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Flooding is the most common environmental hazard in Nigeria (Etuonovbe, 2011). Flood disaster is not an ancient phenomenon in the country, and its destructive tendencies are sometimes enormous. Reports have it that serious flood disasters have occurred in Abuja (2005, 2007 and 2000), Osogbo (2002, 2006, 2002), Yobe (2000) and Akure (2006, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006); the coastal cities of Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Uyo, Warri among others have severally experienced incidences that have claimed many lives and properties worth millions of dollars (Olajuyigbe, Rotowa and Durojaye, 2012).

Also, poor drainage systems in some part of the FCT have caused tremendous environmental challenges. These challenges are basically associated with poor maintenance of drainage system and flood which eventually leads to environmental hazards. Some places were flooded, making the roads practically impassable for motorists. In many instances, torrential rainfall literally submerged the cities, halting human and vehicular activities thereby forcing residents to stay indoors as a pre-emptive measure against human disaster.

Successful drainage depends on early detection of problems before conditions require major action. Signs of drainage problems requiring attention include: puddles on the surface area, poor surface flow, slope erosion, clogged ditches, pavement edge raveling, preliminary cracking, pavement pumping, and surface settlement (L.M. Nyuyo, 2003). These signs indicate the start of failures which occur as soil particles are gradually washed away and as excess water seeps in to the roadway reducing the load carrying ability of the sub grade. Major failures caused by poor drainage conditions include washouts, slides, slip outs, road and pavement breakup and flood damage. This study is to examine the impact of poor drainage system and floods control in Nigeria.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The main aim of the research is to examine the impact of poor drainage system and floods control in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include:

1. to examine the intensity and frequency of floods in Loko Goma Community Abuja .

2. to examine the impact of poor drainage system and floods control in Loko Goma Community Abuja .

3. to determine the relationship between poor drainage system and floods control in Loko Goma Community Abuja .

4. to evaluate the geometry of selected drainage channels in Loko Goma Community Abuja.

5. to identify the causes of flood in Loko Goma Community Abuja .

6. to proffer solution to the causes of flood in Loko Goma Community Abuja .

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION

1. What is the intensity and frequency of floods in Loko Goma Community Abuja?

2. What is the impact of poor drainage system and floods control in Loko Goma Community Abuja?

3. What is the relationship between poor drainage system and floods control in Loko Goma Community Abuja?

4. What is the geometry of selected drainage channels in Loko Goma Community Abuja?

5. What are the causes of flood in Loko Goma Community Abuja?

6. What is the solution to the causes of flood in Loko Goma Community Abuja?

1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1. H0: poor drainage system has no significant impact on floods control in Nigeria.

2. H1: poor drainage system has significant impact on floods control in Nigeria.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study is beneficial to Loko Goma community for future road drainage system construction to avoid problems by assessing the performances of the current drainage systems and proposing mitigation measures to avoid improper functioning.

The study will propose appropriate solutions to the drainage systems whose implementation would contribute to floods control in Nigeria especially in Loko Goma Community.

The findings of this study will also expose the effect and discomfort flood can have on an individual and the community as well. It will also educate them on the dangers of flood and its destructive nature to lives and properties.

The study will be beneficial for academicians and researchers, who conduct similar researches on the impact of poor drainage system and floods control in Nigeria.

  1. SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of study will cover the impact of poor drainage system and floods control in Nigeria. (a case study of Loko Goma Community Abuja FCT).

  1. LIMITATION OF STUDY

1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Impact: the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another

Poor: of a low or inferior standard or quality.

Drainage system: Drainage systems are constructed to ensure that waste water and sewage is transported neatly to disposal points, thereby keeping the environment well drained and free of waste. 

Floods control: Flood control refers to all methods used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:56
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract
Price:₦3,000
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