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Project Topic:

DETERMINATION OF FLOWING BOTTOM-HOLE PRESSURE FROM WELL-HEAD DATA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 50 ::   Attributes: DOCUMENTATION ::   9,161 people found this useful

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ABSTRACT

Production well optimization and modeling is very important in the efficient management of oil and gas production from a well. A major factor contributing to this process is the accurate estimations of the flowing bottom-hole pressure at the formation as it helps in various petroleum production engineering analysis. Some of these analysis include studies on Vertical Lift Performance (VLP) and Inflow Performance. The effective determination of bottom-hole pressure has been a major concern in the industry due to several reasons as it can either be measured or estimated. In the case of measurement, a pressure gauge is needed down-hole, this is very accurate but expensive and time consuming. For this reason, this project will focus on flowing bottom-hole pressure estimation from wellhead pressure and data as it is generally cost effective and it can be easily determined within a short period of time. This will be achieved through the modification of Guo’s (2001) method of simultaneous flow of gas, oil, water and sand particles (4-phase flow) in borehole tubing. Guo’s model will be modified and will only consider the frictional pressure gradient term in the general energy equation and account for only vertical multiphase flow. The result of this work obtained with the use of mat lab when applied to simulation of two phase flow in vertical oil wells and high Gas-Oil ratio wells are relatively accurate. However, low Gas-Oil ratio wells fall short of the model estimation of pressure.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION.. ii

DEDICATION.. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.. iv

ABSTRACT.. v

TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………………….. vi

LIST OF FIGURES viii

LIST OF TABLES. ix

NOMENCLATURE.. x

CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………… 1

1.0      INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1      Background of Study. 1

  1. What is Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure …………………………………….. 2
  2. Typical Flow Regimes ………………………………………………………... 3

1.2.3       Vertical multiphase flow.. 4

1.2      Statement of Problem.. 7

1.3      Aim & Objectives. 8

1.4      Significances of Study. 9

1.5      Scope of the Project 9

2.0      LITERATURE REVIEW... 10

CHAPTER THREE.. 16

3.0      METHODOLOGY.. 16

3.1      Model Derivation and Development 16

3.2      Model Assumptions. 16

3.3      Model Modification. 17

3.3.1       Modification of mixture specific weight, ρm.. 17

3.3.2       Modification of mixture velocity, Vm.. 21

3.4      Solution Method. 27

CHAPTER FOUR.. 28

4.0      RESULT AND DISCUSSION.. 28

4.1      Raw Data Analysis. 28

4.2      Result Analysis. 29

4.2.1       High GOR well 30

4.2.2       Low GOR well 31

4.2.3       Low GOR producing water well 32

4.2.4       High GOR producing water well 33

4.2.5       Heavy oil well 34

CHAPTER FIVE.. 35

5.0      CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 35

5.1      Conclusion. 35

5.2      Recommendation. 35

REFERENCES. 36

APPENDIX A (MATLAB PROGRAM) 39

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure1.1: Flow Patterns in Vertical Flow ……………………………………………………6

Figure1.1.3: Flow Regime in Vertical Flow as a Function of the Superficial Velocities of Gas and Liquid Flow ……………………………………………………………………………..7

Figure 4.2.1: Approximate Pressure Profile for High GOR well …………………………..30

Figure 4.2.2: Approximate Pressure Profile for Low GOR well …………………………..31

 Figure 4.2.3: Approximate Pressure Profile for Low GOR (Producing water) well …….32

Figure 4.2.4: Approximate Pressure Profile for High GOR (Producing water) well ……33

Figure 4.2.5: Approximate Pressure Profile for Heavy oil well …………………………34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1: Well Head Pressure, Flow Rates and Fluid Gravity Data for Five Different wells………..28

Table 4.2: Summary of estimated flowing bottom-hole pressures compared with the measured values for the five producing vertical oil wells……………………………………………………………….29

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOMENCLATURE

 

A: Pipe cross-sectional area, sq.ft

di:Tubing inner diameter, ft.

dh: Incremental depth, ft.

dP: Pressure differential, lb/ft3

ɛ: Pipe wall roughness factor, dimensionless

ƒ: Dimensional Moody frictional factor (Nikuradse’s correlation)

g: Acceleration due to gravity, ft/s2

gc: gravitational constant, lb-force

K: Universal positive constant with a value dependent on units employed

Ps: Atmospheric pressure, psia

P: Pressure, lb/ft3

Pwh: Wellhead pressure, psia

Qs: Volumetric flow rate of solid, ft3/day

Qo: Volumetric flow rate of oil, bbl/day

Qw: Volumetric flow rate of water, bbl/day

Qgs: Volumetric flow rate of gas at standard conditions, ft3/day

Q: Volumetric flow rate of mixture, ft3/sec

qs: Volumetric flow rate of solids, ft3/sec

ql: Volumetric flow rate of liquids, ft3/sec

qg: Volumetric flow rate of gas, ft3/sec

Ts:Surface Temperature, 0R

T: Bottom-hole temperature, 0R

Vm:Mixture fluid velocity, ft/sec

V: Volume of flowing fluid, ft3

W: weight flow rate of mixture, lb/sec

Ws: Weight flow rate of solids, lb/sec

Wl: Weight flow rate of liquids, lb/sec

Wg: Weight flow rate of gas, lb/sec

ρm: Mixture specific weight, lb/ft3

ρw: Density of water, lb/ft3

ρo: Density of oil, lb/ft3

γs: Specific gravity of Solid with respect to water, dimensionless

γo: Specific gravity of Oil with respect to water, dimensionless

γw: Specific gravity of water, dimensionless

γg: Specific gravity of gas with respect to air, dimensionless


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Paper Information

Format:MS WORD
Chapter:1-5
Pages:50
Attribute:DOCUMENTATION
Price:₦3,000
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