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Project Topic:

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FISH-SCALE BIOPOLYMER COMPOSITE USING GELATINIZED AND UNGELATINIZED STARCH

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: experiment, abstract, references ::   2,800 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

  1. INTRODUCTION

The comparative study of mechanical properties of fish-scale biopolymer composite has brought about the advancement in many fields ranging from food packaging, food coatings, encapsulation and nanotechnology.

Plastic packaging for food and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also uses up valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current focus on exploring alternatives to petroleum and emphasis on reduced environmental impact, research is increasingly being directed at development of biodegradable food packaging from biopolymer-based materials. The proposed paper will present a review of recent developments in biopolymer-based food packaging materials including natural biopolymers (such as starches and proteins), synthetic biopolymers (such as poly lactic acid), biopolymer blends, and nanocomposites based on natural and synthetic biopolymers.

Bio-based plastics and biopolymers have been widely studied in years. Replacing the oil-based packaging materials with bio-based films and containers might give not only a competitive advantage due to more sustainable and greener image, but also some improved technical properties.

Special attention should be paid to barrier properties which are extremely important especially for bio-based food packaging materials. Most plastic materials used because they have desirable mechanical properties at an economical cost. For this reason, the mechanical properties may be considered the most important of all the physical and chemical properties of high polymers for most applications.

Thus everyone working with such materials needs atleast an elementary knowledge of their mechanical behavior and how this behavior can be modified by the numerous structural factors that can be varied in polymers. Polymers vary from liquids and soft rubbers to very hard and rigid solids.

Various structural factors, in addition to the chemical composition that affects all the major mechanical properties of polymers are

  • Molecular weight
  • Cross-linking and branching
  • Crystallinity and crystal morphology
  • Copolymerization (random, block and graft)
  • Plasticization
  • Molecular orientation.
  • Fillers
  • Blending
  • Phase separation and orientation in blocks, grafts and blends

 

In addition to the structural and molecular factors listed above, the following environmental or external variables are important in determining mechanical behavior.

  • Temperature
  • Time, frequency, rate of stressing or straining
  • Pressure
  • Stress and strain amplitude
  • Type of deformation (shear, tensile, biaxial etc)
  • Heat treatments or thermal history
  • Nature of surrounding atmosphere, especially moisture content.

There is a strong dependence on temperature and time of the properties of polymers compared to those of other materials such as metals.

This strong dependence of properties on temperature and how fast the material is deformed (time scale) is a result of the viscoelastic nature of polymers.

Viscoelasticity implies behavior similar to both viscous liquids in which the rate of deformation is proportional to the applied force and to purely elastic solids in which the deformation is proportional to the applied force.

In viscous systems all the work done on the system is dissipated as heat, whereas in elastic systems all the work is stored as potential energy as in a stretched spring.

 

 

 

1.2     Objectives and Scope

The overall objective of this study is to compare the mechanical properties of fish-scale biopolymer composites using gelatinized and un-gelatinized starch. The Specific objectives includes;

  • To acquire various fish scale samples and synthesizing with gelatinized starch and un-gelatinized starch.
  • Comparative analysis of the mechanical properties of fish scale biopolymers using gelatinized and un-gelatinized starch.

 

 

 

1.3          SIGNIFICANCE OF WORK

It is expected that the results of the research would provide basis for comparison of the mechanical properties of fish scale biopolymer composites using gelatinized and un-gelatinized starch.

 

 

1.4            APPLICATIONS OF FISH SCALES

Novel applications of fish scales include;

  • Removal of heavy metals from energy-produced waste streams
  • Production of protein rich fertilizers.
  • Bio-indicator of heavy metal pollution.
  • Fabrication of bio-plastics.
  • Material for body armor.
  • Source of health supplement.
  • Healthy alternative to diary-based dessert products.

 

1.5         ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FISH SCALES

Fish Scales along with other fish waste constitute nuisance and hazard that is if accumulated on the sea bed to the environment due to the difficulty and high cost of separating the waste feed stream from fish processing industries. However, the introduction of strict environmental legislations and the present need for biopolymers in areas such as pharmaceuticals, biodiesel and so on has led to the exploitation of fish scales since it is very cheap.

 

 

1.6          ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FISH SCALES

The current growing interest in the economical valorization of industrial by-products, need for innovative processing conditions, potential novel applications and the environmental friendly management of industrial wastes by legislative bodies and there ever increasing use of biopolymers both domestically and industrially, make fish scales a source of income generation, job creation, research development for a nation.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:56
Attribute:experiment, abstract, references
Price:₦3,000
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