1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Cultism in Nigeria is now very popular among Nigerian youths, it all began from the campus; it was founded by the nobel leureat prof. wole soyinka back in 1952. This cult group; pirate confratanaity Elite of the university college of Ibadan was formed by prof wole soyinka with his six friends and then part of the University of London. The very aim of this group was to produce a leader who will be very proud of his african heritage. They have skull and cross bones as their logo while members adopted confraternity names as ‘’Capon’ Blood’’ and ‘’Long John Silver’’. The pirates cultivated a style that ridiculed colonial attitude. They proved popular among students even after the original members moved on. Membership was opened to every male students regardless of tribe or race. For almost 20 years, the pirate a non-violent body become established in all tertiary institution that emerged in post independent Nigeria as the only confraternity on Nigeria campus. The emergence of campus cult as they are known in Nigeria today began with a split of early 1970s, in pirates confraternity. 1972 Bolaji Carew and several others were expelled from the pirates for failing to meet expected standards. In reaction to this and other events, the pirates registered themselves under the name National Association of Seadogs [NAS]. The Buccaneers of Seadogs was founded by Carew. In 1980s confraternities spread over the 300 institutions of higher education in the country. The Neo-Black movement of Africa [Black Axe] emerged from University of Benin in Edo state while the Supreme Eiye confraternity [National Association of Air Lords] broken off from Black Axe in 1983. Students at the University of Calabar in cross River State founded the Eternal Fraternal Order of the Legion Consortium [the Klansmens Konfraternity] while a former member of Buccaneers confraternity started the Supreme Vikings confraternity [the Adventures of the De Norsemen Club of Nigeria ] the following year.
In the mid 80s, it had become evident that some of the cults had been adopted as elements in the intelligence and the security services serving the then military government. They were used against students union and University staff who was the only organized groups opposing military rule.
In 1984, Prof Wole Soyinka, extricated himself from emerging trend, initiated the abolition of the pirates confraternity in all tertiary institution, by then the phenomena of violent cults had developed a life of its own; early 1990s as the end of the second Republic drew near, confraternity activities expanded dramatically in the Niger Delta as they engaged in a bloody struggle for supremacy. The family confraternity [The campus mafia or The mafia], which modeled itself after the Italian mafia, emerged, shortly after their arrival, several students were expelled from Abia State University for cheating and ‘’cultism ‘’ a reference to the voodoo-practicing confraternities, which marked the beginning of a shift of confraternity activities from the university to off campus.
The Brotherhood of the Blood [also known as Two-Two [Black Beret] another notorious confraternity was founded at Enugu State University of Science and Technology. Cults established in early 1990s are; Second Son of Satan [SSS], Night Cadet, Sonmen, Mgba Mgba Brothers, Temple of Eden, Trogan Horse, Jurists, White Bishops, Gentlemen Clubs, Fame, Executioners, Dreded Friends, Eagle club, Black Scorpion, Red Sea Horse, Fraternity of Friends The klansmen konfraternity expanded their influence by creating a Street and Creek Wing,, Deebam to expanded their influence by creating a street and Creek wing, Deebam to fight for and control territory outside the Universities through violence and crime. In response, the supreme Vikings Confraternity [SVC] establish their own street and creek group, Dewell. When was unable to match Deebam, the SVC created the second confraternity wing. The Icelanders [German], which was led by militia leader Ateke Tom. The outlaws, another well-known street and creek confraternity began to be formed. These includes the Black Brazier [Black Bra], the Viqueens, Daughters of Jezebel and the Damsel. Female confraternities have supplied spies for all allied male confraternities as well as acted as prostitution syndicates.
All the students of the above mentioned cult group are coming from different families in Nigeria. most of these students were given free hands by their parents. The kind of parents a student have determine the kind of attitutude potrayed by such students. Take trace down to the histroy of cultism; more than 70% of the cultist are from a careless background. Some are the sons and daughters of rich parents.
Lack of advice and proper upbringing in the fear of God by parents is the major cause of cultism in Nigeria.
The eradication of cultism in Nigeria must start from the house, the parents can go a long way to help the federal government of Nigeria to eradicate the menace of cultism. When a parent start telling the child the dangers of being a cultist from childhood, that particular child will live to remember the dangers behind cultism.
Parent should also watch the friends that their children keep because this thing called “cultism” starts from keeping wrong group of friends.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Cultism is the major cause of violence in Nigeria, this have being the main area of research by researchers and educationist in Nigeria to help the federal government of nigeria to eradicate cultism. But one can not fight cultism from the outside, if cultism must be stopped, the it has to be an internal thing. This research work try to assist both the parents and the Federal government of Nigeria to eradicte cultism. But the major proble is not only the parents, members of staff of the federal government also practice cultism. Parents will do their best at home to eradicate cultism but it is still some this top politician that encourage this cult groups. So the fight will not only come from the parents; though the parent have a major role to play in eradictaion of cultism in Nigeria. because a child can not be forced to become a cultist if he or she is coming from a religious background and from a descent parents.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
1. What are the roles of parents in the eradication of cultism in Nigeria?
2. What are the major causes of cult activities in Nigeria?
3. What are the roles of the federal government of Nigeria in the eradictaion of cultism in tertiary institutions?
4. Are there any benefits in becoming a member of a cult group in Nigeria?
5. Does the family background of a child have significant effect on the attitude and desire of the child to become a member of a cult group?
6. What effect does the advice and teachings of the parent on a child refusal to become a cultist?
7. Why is cult activities much in the higher institutions in Nigeria?
8. What are the ways to curb out cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria?
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant relationship between the background of a child and the refusal of becoming a cult menber.
H1: There is a significant relationship between the background of a child and the refusal of becoming a cult menber.
H0: Prents advice have no significant impact on the child refusal of becoming a cult member.
H1: Prents advice have significant impact on the child refusal of becoming a cult member.
H0: cult activities in tertiary institution has no significant effect on the academic performance and behavioural pattern of the students.
H1: cult activities in tertiary institution has significant effect on the academic performance and behavioural pattern of the students.
1.5 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The aim of this research work is to determine the following:
1. The roles of parents in the eradication of cultism in Nigeria
2. The major causes of cult activities in Nigeria.
3. The roles of the federal government of Nigeria in the eradictaion of cultism in tertiary institutions.
4. If there is any benefits in becoming a member of a cult group in Nigeria.
5. Whether the family background of a child have significant effect on the attitude and desire of the child to become a member of a cult group.
6. The effect of the advice and teachings of the parent on a child refusal to become a cultist.
7. Why is cult activities much in the higher institutions in Nigeria.
8. The ways to curb out cultism in tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
By the end of the research work we shall be able to state the roles of parents in the eradiction of cultism in the society. The study will also discuss the effect of cult activities on the academic performance and behavioural pattern of a student in a tertiary institution. The study also look at the participation of the federal government of Nigeria in the eradication of cultism in Nigeria. the research work will state the effect of cultism on the social and economic development of Nigeria with the disadvantages. Finally the study will be able to reveal the effect of the background of a child on the refusal of becoming a cult member in the society.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study covers the origin of cultism in Nigeria, it also discuss the various types of cult groups and the year founded in Nigeria. the study also reveals the roles of both the parents and federal government of Nigeria in eradicating cultism in Nigeria.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: Due to insufficient finance the researcher was unable to visit all areas in the society but the research was able to get good information on the background and the responses of educated people on how to eradicate cultism in Nigeria.
TIME CONSTRAINTS: Due to researchers involvement in other research, he or she was unable to reach out to all the areas of the society and various tertiary institutions in Nigeria. but was able to get all the information needed for the purpose of the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONFRATANITY: a brotherhood, especially with a religious or charitable purpose.
CULTISM: A religion or religious sect generally considered to be extremist or false, with its followers often living in anunconventional manner under the guidance of an authoritarian, charismatic leader.
ERADICATION: is the complete removal of something or complete destruction of anything.
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