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Project Topic:

EFFECTS OF EVALUATION TECHNIQUES UTILIZATION BY SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER IN DELTA/BAYELSA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 60 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis ::   1,548 people found this useful

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INTRODUCTION

Assessment techniques have relationship with teachers' abilities. As the nation’s attention is increasingly focused on the outcomes of education, policy makers have undertaken a extensive range of reforms to improve schools, ranging from setting new standards and tests, to redesigning schools, new curricula and new instructional strategies. One characteristic of teachers' competencies is the ability to evaluate teaching and learning. Social Studies are viewed by many experts as being primarily concerned with the study of human being within his or her environment. Awe in Fadeiye (2005:06), is of the view that   …Social studies is a discipline if properly programmed and effectively taught should help to solve social problems that are facing developing countries like ours (Nigeria) where  the old  norms are fast losing their grips and  without any effective substitute to replace them.

Rising expectations about what students should know and be able to do, break-through in research on how children learn, and the increasing diversity of the student population have all put significant pressure on the knowledge and skill teachers must have to achieve the ambitious goal demanded of public education.  This includes the evaluation of teaching methods and the use of instructional materials on one hand, and the outcome of students learning on the other hand. Most authors view evaluation as a "system or a process".

It was 2004 that Rossi, Lipsy and Freed sees evaluation as a systematic determination of merit,

worth and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards.

Evaluation is often used to characterize and appraise subjects of interest in a wide range of

human endeavours including arts, sciences, crimes, justice, foundations and non-profitable

organizations, government, health-care, and other human services.

Bozimo and Ikwumelu (2009), maintain that Social studies aims at helping people develop the ability to make decisions so that they can resolve personal problems and shape policy by participating in intelligent social action. They also state that Social studies is concerned not only with knowledge but also with attitudes, skills and values. Ikwumelu (2002) holds that it gives an opportunity for important social and moral issues such as attitudes to the destitute, poverty, racialism and different types of government, cruelty to animals and children, brutality and injustice to be introduced into curriculum.

Jarolimek (1977:04), agreeing with the above view, states that Social studies is a field of study that teaches about people, how and where they live, how they form and structure societies, how they govern themselves and provide for their material and psychological needs; how and why they love and hate each other, how they use and misuse the resources of the planet that is their home.

 Evaluation technique is the determination of merit, worth and significance of social studies academic attainment.

The competent teacher is therefore the teacher who possesses the ability to determine the

merit, worth and significance of teaching and learning outcome. This is with the view to

determining the competence in relationship to students' knowledge. Therefore, in an attempt

to evaluate students' ability and academic achievement, consideration is given to knowing

the merit, worth and significance of teaching when competent teachers expose the students to, in normal classroom situations. Furthermore, social studies education evaluation technique

is also being viewed as a process. In that case, it is an ongoing activity that requires the

adoption of several techniques and methods in an attempt to measure social studies teaching

objectives. The adoption of student-centered instructional strategies including the inquiry method, discussion, role play, simulation, games and other similar strategies have been shown to enhance the active participation of students in the teaching and learning of social studies. It is on this premise that social studies teachers should show competence during classroom teaching. Hence, Nwafor (2003) opines that any successful classroom teaching depends primarily on the teacher, his professional competence and the appropriateness of the evaluation techniques to the age level of the students. Thus, tertiary institutions training programmes prepare the students both in the acquisition of knowledge on social studies education objectives and the general principles of effective teaching.

During this preparation period, the student is said to undergo apprenticeship training in the

art and science of teaching.

The ability to evaluate teaching is seen as part of teachers' professional competence.

This is because a competent teacher is the one who uses appropriate evaluation techniques

to achieve social studies aims and objectives in teaching students for academic attainment

and proper upbringing of the student. But this is carried out in relation to the age level of

the students. Social studies is meant to prepare citizens for active participation in society and help students acquire basic knowledge, positive attitudes, values and social skills needed for responsible citizenship and contributing members of the society. The ability to evaluate teaching and learning based on the social studies aims and objectives depends on the level of competence of the teacher. Ughmadu (1998) discusses evaluation technique in relation to social studies aims and objectives. He makes a number of suggestions that should be followed in the process. One of such suggestions is that the first step in the evaluation of social studies aims and objectives to achieve the learning outcome. According to him, the process of evaluating social studies education objectives is based on the identification or recall of teaching aims and objectives is to

students in our institutions of learning. This implies that the success of the aims and objectives

that are set for the students become imperative. This is done so that the particular behaviours

the students are expected to exhibit after being exposed to learning are taken into

consideration. The tools of evaluation are important in the evaluation technique. The

application of evaluation tools by the teachers in a given subject depends on the level of

teaching competence shown by the teachers. This is because the teachers are the focus in

the implementation of social studies aims and objectives; hence the teachers should be

knowledgeable in the application of the evaluation tools in the school system.

On the other hand, Social studies as an integrated study of the social sciences and humanities, is to encourage civic competence. Within social studies programme, social studies provides

synchronized, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, archaeology,

economic, geography, history, law, philosophy, political sciences, psychology, religion, and

sociology, as well as appropriate content for the humanities, mathematics, and natural

sciences. The primary purpose of social studies is to help young people develop the ability to

make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good or citizens of a culturally diverse,

democratic society in an interdependent world (Wronski 1975).

About the year 1979 Bausell R. and Bausell C.  opine that evaluation tools are viewed in relation

to the various processes used in evaluating teachers' competencies. They identify students’

rating as one of the tools of measuring teaching competence. Conversely, their findings show

that students’ rating is not the only way of evaluating teachers' competencies but also

enable the teacher to categorize students that are exposed to teaching in the schools. It

serves both to access the teachers' level of competence and academic performance of

students.

 Obemeata (1984) described social studies as a study of how man influences and is in turn

influenced by physical, social, political, religious, economic, psychological, cultural,

scientific and technological environments. Social studies should then be seen as a way of life.

These last two definitions have their roots in society and are generally issue based.

Social studies according to Adediran (2007) should be seen as a subject concerned primarily with

the study of people, their environment, and the society in which they live and resultant

interaction of these three elements. As a field of study, social studies attempts at synthesizing

and applying the knowledge and skills obtained from history and the social sciences to

promote effective citizenship.

Aleamon and Graham (1979) see the use of students' ratings for evaluating teachers' competencies as the most regarded means in school today. The usefulness of students’ rating can be seen in Nigerian tertiary institutions because it helps in the accurate placement of students to the next level of learning. Ughamadu and Okoye (1998) opine on what

constitute evaluation tools. They include questioning, note taking, field trips and excursions.

Observations have shown that the above listed evaluation tools are relevant to teaching and learning of social studies aims and objectives in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The aims

and objectives of social studies education in Nigerian tertiary institutions are condensed

into three broad areas: informational; skills learning; and attitudes and values learning

(Osakwe and Itdjere, 2005). Social studies teachers without the knowledge of the evaluation

tools and the application lack the necessary competencies that are required in the school

system for the expected learning outcome after exposing the students to the learning of the

aims and objectives of social studies education (Osakwe and Itdjere, 2005).

 According to Iyang – Abia & Esu (2004) asserted that teaching of social studies in respect of

its scope and nature, which is multidimensional, integrative and dynamic, cannot effectively

take effects without the use of instructional materials, the teaching of social studies contents

must focus not only on making teachers competent at using such instructional materials, but

at the same time, promote strategies that enables the integration of instructional materials that

enhances teaching and learning of social studies goals and objectives (Kochar 1988).

 

By 2003, Adekunle revealed in his study that textbooks are placed very highly in order of use.

The result conspicuous shows the heavy significance on textbook as the source of information in the secondary schools. Most teachers are not aware of the wealth of information available for

enriching social studies education in the areas under study. Akintunde (2003) discourse the role

of a social studies teacher in circulating global information to learners in order to teach

values appropriately and show their global implication. It is necessary to update information

on global issues. And, the judgment of the teacher is crucial in selecting the element of

information that learners are expected to learn and remember. This is because some details

may be unnecessary and socially abnormal for the teachers considering their readiness.

Still, the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies

according to Muodumogu (2003) is not only the issue, but also the appropriateness of the

selected materials by the teacher to the topic at hand which sometimes make the lesson less

effective and thereby render the materials useless, Orakwe (2000) asserts.

Social studies classroom teaching without any use of teaching aids is not worth consideration

at all.

To accomplish these objectives, Adeniji in 2004, suggests that all the teachers of Social studies in all affected levels of education need to be familiar with the content and methods of teaching the subject in order to interpret the content of Social studies correctly and encourage its learning. In addition, they need to acquire skills on selection and utilization of Social studies methods.

            Okoro (2001:19), supporting this view, states that when Social studies instructional methods are related to the content, learning will cease to be fragmentary and memorization of unrelated facts and concepts will end. He maintains that the ultimate result of relating Social studies instructional methods and content is for a successful inculcation of such Social studies content as:

  • Independent thinking and the desire to think on more individual level.
  • Group cooperation or developing more favourable attitudes towards working more effectively and efficiently with others.
  • Social responsibilities or respect for obligations to obey the rules of the home, schools and community.
  • Empathy or developing the ability to relate and identify more closely with other peoples’ situations.
  • Democratic living or the growth of improved attitudes towards increasing respect for other people’s rights.

            Downey and Kelly in Ikwumelu (2002:3), observe that “social awareness and social understanding are still not being developed, students still consider either to take for granted what their teachers offer or to reject it out of hand”, probably as a result of lack of relevance between Social studies content and its instructional methods. It is only when such relevance is achieved that Social studies programme can help students think critically about their own assumptions and about the world in which they live, so that they will no longer be contented to accept their lot blindly but can learn ways of contributing towards changes.

            Wheeler in Fadeiye (2005:06) equally maintains that “whether a subject is effective or not depends on the nature and quality of the learning experiences that are associated with it”.  This implies that it is not only the content that determines effectiveness but also the quality of learning experiences which in some cases are dependent upon proper selection and appropriate utilization of instructional methods by the teachers.          Mkpa in Mkpa (2005:10), thus suggests that “content must be related to selected instructional methods for effective and quality learning experiences to be achieved”. He maintains that in reality content and process are so interrelated that an outright distinction may not be desirable except for analytical purpose; content and process should therefore be seen as an integral part of each other and so should both be accorded sufficient emphasis as one cannot exist in isolation of the other.

            Mbakwem (2005) is also of the view that proper selection and appropriate utilization of instructional methods could encourage skills acquisition and development of values. From the foregoing, it appears that the ability of Social studies to realize the lofty goals expected of it rests on the instructional methods selected and used by the teachers. With regard to the selection and use of instructional methods in teaching of Social studies, Bozimo and Ikwumelu (2009:138), opine that there is wide spectrum of instructional methods available for use in Social studies education. While some of the methods can only be used to achieve some specified objectives, others can achieve multiple objectives simultaneously.

            Fadeiye (2005) asserts also that methods of teaching Social studies are many and that some are more effective than the others; to him Social studies teachers need to examine all the methods critically and experiment with them with a view to selecting most appropriate methods for classroom interaction. This thus leads to such questions as:

  • Is there any difference between rural and urban Social studies teachers in   the use of  instructional methods?
  • Is it that Social studies teachers actual utilize these methods properly?
  • What are the instructional methods available for use in teaching Social studies?
  • Is there possible factors affecting selection and utilization of these methods and what are they?

Diverse methods can be used in teaching a unit of work so that students will have the chance of using all their senses with a sight to making learning permanent. Some of these instructional methods used in teaching Social studies are: lecture method, panel method, debate method, dramatization method, inquiring method, concept mapping, discussion, field trip method, creative activity, games and simulation methods.

By 2005, Fadeiye opines that Social studies teacher needs to familiarize himself with several methods of teaching Social studies so as to make classroom more interesting and participatory. He also suggests the use of integrated methods in the teaching since Social studies is an inter-disciplinary subject. Unfortunately, some Social studies teachers fall back to a particular method as the only method of passing information to the students, and this does no good to the teaching and learning of Social studies, furthermore selection and utilization of inappropriate methods by Social studies teachers may impede the learning of Social studies (Bozimo and Ikwumelu, 2009).

Even though, some studies have reported on different aspects of the implementation of the Junior Secondary School social studies Curriculum, the literature on teacher factor in quality assurance in social studies in Nigerian schools is limited. The social studies teacher has a pivotal role in ensuring that good quality teaching and learning takes place in the social studies classroom.

 

As a result, there is a need for a study on the effects of evaluation techniques utilization by social studies teacher particularly in Delta/Bayelsa State.

 

Statement of the Problem

            Critically looking at Social studies, is often seen as all comers’ course and a dumping ground for those denied admission in other disciplines by the school management (Igba, 2005).  Igba (2005), is of the view that... school management and ministry of education often appoint teachers that read courses like Geography, Economics, History, Government, English language and even Fine Arts to teach the subject in secondary schools in Delta/Bayelsa State. For this reason it does not improve the teaching and learning of Social studies. This is the cause most Social studies students not pass Social studies in external examination. Melancholic on the poor act, the chief examiner’s report on the performance of students in Social studies examination in the July 2009 says “the performance is generally poor.   It was discouraging to see the extent of ignorance among candidates of Social studies in their home country”, (Delta/Bayelsa State Secondary Education Board, in the year 2008:13). For instance Mkpa (2001) attributed it to improper evaluation and poor uses of Social studies instructional methods, others pointed accusing finger to poor teaching methods involving assessment and application of orthodox or traditional methods in Social studies classroom (Mezieobi, 1991). This probably results in poor performances in junior secondary schools Social studies examinations in the study area.

            To add to it, Onasanya (2008:) harangue that Social studies education in Nigeria for long had been criticized for not quite preparing students for effective living in the society as result of inappropriate utilization of instructional methods in Social studies classroom. In support of the above, Okpalama (2008: 65) maintains that the “inability of Social studies education to actualize its expected goals of preparing students for worthy living is proved beyond  reasonable doubt by the low level of  achievement of Social studies students in external examination”. To Okpalama, the low level of achievement had been attributed to a number of factors by Social studies educators.       

In view of the fact that, Social studies records poor results in the area of study, there is the need to return to the teaching and learning of the discipline, including the methods applied by the teachers in classroom interaction. While considering the methods in use in Social studies teaching, the factors influencing the choice of such methods have to be in focus. Research has shown that successful teaching and learning are dependent upon the assortment and use of appropriate teaching method(s) for classroom use, (Mbakwem, 2005). This study then investigated on the method(s) to be evaluated and used by secondary school teachers for Social studies education in Delta/Bayelsa State.

 Hence, quality evaluation in this study, is an indication or evidence that if teachers of social studies education in secondary school are competent in implementing the curriculum of social studies education programme, it will yield products that are assuring.

 

Purpose of the Study

            The research focuses on the effects of evaluation techniques utilization by social studies teacher  in Delta/Bayelsa State. Specifically, it aims at;

  • Spoting the available instructional methods for teaching Social studies in Secondary schools.
  • Determining the most widely selected Social studies instructional    methods bymale and female secondary school teacher in Bayelsa/Delta State.
  • Finding out the most widely utilized Social studies   instructional methods by male and female teachers in             secondary schools teachers in Bayelsa/Delta State.
  • Analyzing the possible factors that adversely affect selection of Social studies instructional methods by Secondary school teachers in Bayelsa/Delta State.
  • Ascertaining the factors that affect utilization of Social studies instructional methods by secondary school teachers in Bayelsa/Delta State.

 

Significance of the Study

            The research study is important because it would help in the perceptive of the educational problems of Social studies and the best methods of teaching the subject in secondary schools in Bayelsa/Delta State. The findings of this study will guide Social studies teachers to appreciate the significance of instructional methods in the teaching of Social studies.

            Social studies textbook authors will benefit from the findings of this study by updating their knowledge on the selection and use of Social studies instructional methods. School administrators and supervisors will no doubt fall back on the findings of this study as a guide to supervising Social studies teachers for valuable performance. The study is pertinent because data collected will provide the interested scholars with information on the selection and utilization of Social studies instructional methods in teaching the subject in secondary schools in Bayelsa/Delta State.   The society at hefty will benefit from the findings of the study as the problems related to Social studies instructional methods are perilously observed

Scope of the Study

            The study focuses on selection and utilization of Social studies instructional methods by secondary school teachers in Ebonyi State. The main area of the study is Ebonyi State which has three Education Zones, namely Abakaliki, Onueke and Afikpo Education Zones.

Research Questions

            Five research questions were formulated to direct the study. They are:

  • What are the instructional methods available for use in teaching of Social   studies in Secondary Schools?
  • What are the most widely selected instructional methods by male and         female teachers in Secondary Schools in Bayelsa/Delta State?
  • What are the most widely utilized Social studies instructional methods by male and female teachers in secondary schools in Bayelsa/Delta State?
  • What are the possible factors that affect adversely the selection of Social    studies instructional methods by secondary School teachers in Bayelsa/Delta State?
  • What are the factors that affect utilization of Social studies instructional     methods by secondary school teachers in Bayelsa/Delta State?

Hypotheses

            The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study to be tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho1:     There is no significant difference between the responses of male and female Social studies teachers on methods available for use in teaching Social studies in secondary schools in Bayelsa/Delta state.

Ho2:     There is no significant deference between the responses of male and female teachers in secondary schools on selection of Social studies instructional methods.

Ho3:     There is no significant difference between the responses of male and female Social studies teachers on most widely utilized instructional methods by Social studies teachers in Secondary Schools in Bayelsa/Delta State.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:60
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis
Price:₦3,000
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