Communication is the glue that holds organisations together. Communication assists organizational members to accomplish both individual and organizational goals, implement and respond to organizational changes, coordinate organizational activities, and engage in virtually all organizationally relevant behaviours. Yet, as important as this process is, breakdowns in communication are pervasive. The anonymous with who said “I know you believe you understand what you think I said but I am not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant” was being more than humorous; she or he was describing what every one of us has experienced: a failure to communicate.
To the extent that organizational communications are less effective than they might be, organizations will therefore be less effective than they should be. For example in many companies, new employee orientation programs represent the first important opportunity to begin the process of effective communication with an employee. At Marriot International, the worldwide hotel and resort chain, 40 percent of new employees who leave the organization do so during the first three months on the job. At least that had been true historically. Recently, the rate of departures has been significantly reduced because Marriot has embarked on a concerted effort to improve the content and manner in which it communicates with new employees during orientation. In addition to formally providing more information, each new employee is assigned a “buddy” who serves as a vital communication link to which the newcomer has unrestricted access. Marriot helps ensure that its frontline service personnel communicates effectively with their guests by ensuring that Marriot Communicates effectively with its employees starting from their very first day on the job.
It would be extremely difficult to find as aspect of a manager’s job that does not involve communication serious problems arise when directives are misunderstood, when casual kidding in a work group leads to anger, or when informal remarks by a top-level manager are distorted. Each of these situations is a result of a break down somewhere in the process of communication.
Accordingly, the pertinent question is not whether managers engage in communication inherent to functioning of an organization. Rather, the pertinent question is whether managers will communicate well or poorly. In other words, communication itself is unavoidable. Every manager must be a communicator. In fact, everything manager communicates something in some way to somebody or some group the only question is “with what effect?” This point will become apparent as you proceed through the chapter. Tremendous advances in communications and information technology among the people in organizations leaves much to be desired. Communication among people does not depend on technology but rather on forces in people and their surroundings. It is a process that occurs within people. Below is a simple input-out diagram showing the process of communication flow and evaluation.
Communication also serves as an instrument of social interaction. It help us to understand people, to understand them and predict their responses to situations. It is a means by which power is acquired, exercised and sustained; it is the medium through which relationships are established, attained and maintained. It also provide a means by which people in business world wide communicate, exchange information and developed plans. Communication helps orient workers to one another to achieve the goals of the organization.
Communication is the lubricant that keeps the machinery of the organization, it is the means through which roles are identified and assigned. It is the life blood of an organization. The above consideration of communication emphasizes its importance in human skill. To organise is to communicate. Thus no organization can survive without effective communication in achieving its objectives.
Human skills are all the skills that are required in order to understand other people and interact effectively with them. Managers need these human skills most in every aspect of their work especially in directing, since their main job is to get things done through people working with them and for them. An effective communication is one of the human skills all managers must possess, which is the ability to transfer information effectively. This should be complemented with the welfare of the staff which induces health care, promotion, accommodation, and staff development.
In an organization, the threat and weaves everything together is communication, it keeps internal operation running smoothly and at same time it fosters good relation with people outside the organization. Business men have to communicate in different ways to persuade people to patronize their business.
Successful communication is a two way process, a manager has to be attuned to the reaction of people to what has been said and more importantly to listen to what they have to say in return. “in this modern age, virtually life is modelled by both the message and the medium” in a home, there is the need for communication among the members of the Family. In the class room too, there is also the need for a teacher to impart knowledge to the students. In the business world-wide, communication must take place to keep such a business alive and active functioning. The manners at which people work and coordinate their efforts in achieving organizational objective depend greatly on how well they can communicate. Communication in an organization helps in the coordination of two or more people working together to achieve a common objective. It helps in solving and innovation of problems as problems are solved say in day out in the organization. For managers to lead effectively information skills training in the organization for managers to lead effectively, informing and influencing subordinate, peers, and supervision, is necessary. Also, in appraising and regulating the performance of the human resources, there is a direct relationship between communication skills training in the organization. Furthermore, in appraising and regulating the performance of the human resources, there is a direct relationship between communication and productivity. Employees work more effectively when managers show them that they are valuable to the organization through passage of memos, policy manuals written evaluation etc. Managers have to make communication clear for them especially in matters that affect them directly. Lacham and Mescon (1985) say “Even the best efforts to encourage good will and productivity will fail if a manager in one syllable barks”.
The need for effective communication in an organisation is great concern to both management and employees. Management awareness of the importance of communication is evidenced by the fact that: “Nigerian business men and industries spend a huge amount of money annually on improving communication with employees”. However, “Despite the importance of communication in most organization” This project therefore, intends to examine how ineffective communication can affect the objectives of an organization. It will also seek ways of achieving excellent communication in order to achieve the objectives of the organization with special reference to Bank PHB PLC, Kaduna.
1.1 HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Bank was formally known as Habib Bank limited which was incorporated as a private limited liability company in November 1982. It was granted Banking licence on 7th March, 1983 and recommended on 16th May of the same year. Bank PHB was formed 1st March, 2005 as a result of liquidation and unreliable and constant complains of the customers. As a result of this prevalent situation in the system, a measure was taken to ameliorate the problem. Thus, the issue of a merger and acquisition comes up. A target was given to every bank operating in Nigeria; to meet the sum of 25,000,000.00 (Twenty Five Million Naira) was set as target for every bank. This led to the bank coming together so as to meet up with the target. Platinum bank negotiated with Habib Nig bank Ltd and after several consultation, they reached an agreement and became Platinum-Habib Bank PLC on 1st March 2005.
The objective of this was to assuage the prevalent problem in the banking sector without customers having fear and doubt to transact any form of business with them. This has been introduced and maintained as a banking style with a difference in Nigeria. Bank PHB has developed sound bank with branch network in all states of the federation and the capital territory, Abuja. The Bank also provides financial and technical assistance to the public and private sector organization within the frame network of the financial plan and policies of the Nigerian government.
Mobilization of deposits by encouraging savings through the introduction of effective banking services and effective advertising programmes enabled bank PHB to venture into full range of rental banking services tailored to the needs of all services and professionalism with a difference. The main trust of the banks philosophy is the provision of quality service with emphasis not only on the enhancement of socio moral standards but also on the need to be responsive to the requirement and aspiration of the communities in which they serve. The board is presently composed of 7 Nigerians and 5 Pakistanis with Mr L.K Abiola as chairman while Mr Akin Kekere Ekun, (OFR) is the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer (MD/CEO). The bank started operation fully 1st March, 2005 as Platinum-Habib Bank PLC. All 58 branches are fully automated while plans have also reached an advanced stage in their conversion to computer on-line real time system. The management of PHB Plc are in the continuous process of training and development of their organization and their staff welfare, to meet up with the current challenges in the market.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In order to achieve the set objectives of any organisation, there must be effective communication within the organization and with its environment. When communication is poorly handled, there are bound to be problems of misunderstanding between management and employee in the organization.
The researcher has observed that most organizations experience the problem of distortion of information and misinterpretation of messages which can cause a lot of instruction given by the superior officer not to be properly carried out by the junior officers or even ignored.
Another problem, which affects organizations mainly, is the nature of its hierarchy. If there are too many levels in the hierarchy; the tendency is for a message to become distorted before going through all of them. The policy of communication in the organization is a related factor, if the organization is maintaining an open or close door communication policy. The pen door policy is certainly better enhanced through organizational growth where-as the reverse is the case with the close door communication policy. Other associated problems such as culture, values, sentiments, mental state and physical health of individuals on any given day, etc can also affect the flow of communication in some organizations.
The research therefore, intends to find out how these problems can affect the objectives of the organization and proffer ways of minimizing and if possible eliminating these problems.
Furthermore, the individual organization must be careful to always ensure the appropriateness of the choice of the medium of communication because the mistake made at that stage of the communication process in the organization is bound to affect the other stages negatively.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The research will no doubt show that importance of communication has gone a long way in affecting the objectives of any organization. Most managers and management give little or no attention to the importance of communication in their organization, yet, communication may well be said to be the most critical element in human resources system in achieving the objectives of the organization, since effectively downward communication is fundamental in making all of the other subsystem of human resources management operational also improve communication represents the single most cost effective means of improving productivity and performance. The objectives of the study include:
a. To find out different methods and channels of communication and how best these can be used in achieving organizational objectives.
b. To find out the barrier and problems of communication and how they can be solved.
c. Finally, to give recommendation on how organizations can improve their communication system for higher and effective performance and higher productivity of the organization.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The term hypothesis has been defined in various ways, by different scholars; Goal and Haff (1953) defined hypothesis as a question put in such a way that an answer of some kind can be forth coming. While, Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary defines the concept as a supposition or proposition assumed for the sake of argument: a theory to be proved or disproved by reference to facts. At this point two hypotheses have been propounded viz:
HO: Effective Communication does not bring about achieving organizational objectives.
HI: Effective communications brings about achievement of organizational objectives.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Communication can be said without any fear or contradiction that it has attracted great attention and this is because of its immense benefits to life as a whole and to the life of any organization. There has been great interest and discussions on the subject of communication. Most organizations are only effective when the desired result envisaged before the communication is achieved. A study into organizational communication and how its effectiveness helps in achieving its objectives. Therefore it is relevant to bring out such lapses that are inherent in most organizations.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There are several limitations to the successful collection of relevant data for the completion of the work.
The other major problems are as follows:
1. Time: Seeing the two objectives of pursuing the academic work and within a given time for a project of this nature. To this end, the researcher had limited time to execute this project within the given time frame.
2. Finance: Considering the present economic situation in the country, the cost of limited project and researcher has to work out various financial modalities so as to be able to complete the work with the little financial resources available to him, thus avoiding other necessities.
3. Availability of Date: It is very difficult to get the full details of data wanted for what are termed officially secret. Therefore, a research has to make use of limited data at his disposal in making the project successful.