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POLITICAL ACTION AND SECESSION MOVEMENT IN NIGERIA; CASE STUDY OF BIAFRA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 89 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis ::   6,890 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

It is evident that Nigeria as a country is pregnant both politically and religiously. This effect is not only seen in Nigeria but in other African countries; these entire incidence were coming as a result of change in political administration in Nigeria.

Looking at the past administration we noticed that the Nigeria’s political history was kind of twisted between military and democratic governance.

The First Republic presided over by Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, with a ceremonial President, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, lasted from October 1960 to January 1966.

According to (Danfulani & Atowoju, 2012) stated that the regime was plagued by a lot of antagonistic regionalism, ethnicity, reduced revenues, and an unpleasant power struggle, and it kind of wobbled from one crisis to another until it was overthrown by the military.

In the same vein, the first coup was planned and led by Major Patrick chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu; at the end of the day the coup was terribly executed because of lack of full grips with the consequences; at the end of the day, they were consumed by its complexities thereby making way for an uninvolved officer in the person of General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi, to become the first military Head of State.

However, the coup had significantly increased the effect of ethnicity in Nigeria. This unavoidably is because both Nzeogwu and Aguiyi-Ironsi were of Igbo extraction, and hence, the coup (dubbed by cynics as “Igbo coup”) and the policies of the eventual government were undoubtedly interpreted as Igbo agenda to achieve political ascendancy in Nigeria.

It is evident from the political point of view that Ironsi had tactically goofed, covertly or overtly, by his decree on the abolition of the Federal system on 24th May, 1966 (a previous strategic provision to stymie ethnic rivalry), for an acutely unitary system, and secondly by disparately promoting a number of Igbo military officers ahead of others. Ironsi’s strategic miscalculations sent jitters down the spines of other ethnic groups and united them against his government. Billy J. Dudley (1967), a first generation Nigerian political scientist, noted categorically that the Igbo had plans for a unitary state with the Igbo predominating in its governance. A counter coup was hurriedly organised and executed in July 1966, leading to the emergence of Lt. Col. Yakubu Gowon, a self-acclaimed protector of Nigeria’s minorities, from the North as the new Head of State. Quite unfortunately the earlier coup had generated serious ethnic bitterness which led to the butchery of Igbos dwelling in the North. The ensuing bad blood led to the Biafran secession and a civil war to reunite the country. The study wishes to examine the political action and secession movement in Nigeria using Biafra as the case study.

1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF BIAFRA

In 1960, Nigeria gained independence from Britain. Six years later, the Muslim Hausas in northern Nigeria began massacring the Christian Igbos in the region, prompting tens of thousands of Igbos to flee to the east, where their people were the dominant ethnic group. The Igbos doubted that Nigeria’s oppressive military government would allow them to develop, or even survive, so on May 30, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Odumegwu Ojukwu and other non-Igbo representatives of the area established the Republic of Biafra, comprising several states of Nigeria.

After diplomatic efforts by Nigeria failed to reunite the country, war between Nigeria and Biafra broke out in July 1967. Ojukwu’s forces made some initial advances, but Nigeria’s superior military strength gradually reduced Biafran territory. The state lost its oil fields–its main source of revenue–and without the funds to import food, an estimated one million of its civilians died as a result of severe malnutrition. On January 11, 1970, Nigerian forces captured the provincial capital of Owerri, one of the last Biafran strongholds, and Ojukwu was forced to flee to the Ivory Coast. Four days later, Biafra surrendered to Nigeria.

1.3 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

What really instigated the study was due to secession movement in Nigeria; recently there have been series of killings of the Biafran Protestants in Onitsha local government of Anambra state. The race and need for Biafra by the Igbos has increased overtime with the unfavourable change in political administration. The South-East Based Coalition of Human Rights Organizations (SBCHROs) estimates that about 80 members of the pro-Biafra group the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) and their supporters have been killed by Nigerian security operatives under the directive of the Nigerian government between August 30, 2015 and February 9, 2016.

The most visible incidents were the protests that took place in Onitsha dated December 2, 2015 where about 11 people reportedly lost their lives, including 2 police officers and 9 activists; and also in Aba as on February 9, 2016 where six members of the secessionist group Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) were killed by Nigerian security forces and about 20 others were arrested. Also, the Indigenous People of Biafra claimed that Nigerian soldiers in secretive and a kind of illicit way killed and burned the corpses of Biafran activists in a separate incident in Aba.

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine the political action and secession movement in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of study include:

  1. To investigate on the major causes of secession movement in Nigeria
  2. To determine the effect of change in political administration and political action on secession movement in Nigeria
  3. To examine the relationship between the secession movement and socio economic development in Nigeria
  4. To examine the relationship between political action, secession movement and nation-building
  5. To proffer solution to the above stated problems

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions for the study are stated below as follows:

  1. What are the major causes of secession movement in Nigeria?
  2. What is the effect of change in political administration and political action on secession movement in Nigeria?
  3. Is there any relationship between the secession movement and socio economic development in Nigeria?
  4. What is the relationship between political action, secession movement and nation-building?
  5. What are the roles of the federal government in the resolution of secession movement in Nigeria

1.6 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: there is no significant relationship between change in political administration, political action and secession movement in Nigeria

H1: there is significant relationship between change in political administration, political action and secession movement in Nigeria

H0: secession movement has no significant effect socio economic development in Nigeria

H1: secession movement has significant effect socio economic development in Nigeria

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on political action and secession movement in Nigeria will be of immense benefit to the federal government of Nigeria and the entire Biafrans as it will discuss the major cause of secession movement and political actions in Nigeria, the study will also proffer solution to the causes of secession in Nigeria. Finally the study will be of immense benefit the other research students that wish to carry out similar research on the above stated topic.

1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on political action and secession movement in Nigeria is focused on Biafra and the secession movement. The study will cover other areas like the major cause of secession movement and political actions in Nigeria; the study will also cover the role of the federal government of Nigeria in the resolution of secession movement in Nigeria

1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS

SECESSION MOVEMENT: is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity (a country), but also any organization, union or military alliance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Alonge, F.K. (2005). Principles and Practice of Governing of Men: Nigeria and the World in Perspective. Ibadan: University Press PLC. Ajuonu, A.I & Uchenna, S.N (2004). Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development of the Niger Delta Region. In Duro Oni, et. al (Eds), Nigeria and Globalization on identity, politics and social conflicts. Lagos: Centre for Black and African Arts and civilization, (CBAAC). Ake, C. (1990). “Theoretical Notes on The National Question In Nigerian” in J. Ihonvbere, The Political Economy of development and underdevelopment. Selected Works of Claude Ake, p.14. Lagos: J. A.D. publishers.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:89
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis
Price:₦3,000
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