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Project Topic:

IMPACT OF URBANIZATION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RIVERS STATE

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis ::   332 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The term urbanization has been described as an inter-sectorial phenomenon involving all aspects of the human society and economy (World Bank, 2000). The World Development Report 1999/2000 noted that urbanization is the outcome of the social, economic and political developments that lead to urban concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use and transformation from rural to metropolitan pattern of organization and government. Urbanization affects all spheres of human life both in the rural and urban setting. Urbanization increased residential population and expansion of non-farm business and industry increases the pressure on farmers and makes it more costly and difficult to farm in the traditional way. The issue is complicated by the fact that population and business industry growth often takes place in prime agricultural areas (Asamoah, 2010). Rapid urban population growth means an increasing demand for urban land, particularly for housing, but also for various other urban uses. Urbanization has led to land use conversion from agricultural land to urban land use, such as for infrastructure, industrial, residential or commercial uses. Such land use conversion often reduces the most fertile land, and therefore the impact on agricultural production and food security is often larger than the absolute amount of land involved (Francis et al., 2013). Recent research shows that such urban land use conversion is often driven by economic factors, with positive feedback loops between urban land use expansions and economic growth in the city, as well as in the region (Bai, 2012). Regmi (2014) noted that recent research reports indicate that virtually all of the future world’s population growth will occur in urban areas; partially reflective of rural-urban migration trends driven by relative livelihood opportunities. He stated that approximately 35% of current urban population growth globally is attributed to rural-urban migration and in sub-Saharan Africa; urban population is expected to triple in the next 40 years. Growing urbanization across the globe, therefore, has important “push” and “pull” implications for agricultural research for development.

Pramanik et al,. (2010) noted that urbanization and population growth has serious effect on agriculture. Iheke and Nto (2010) noted that urbanization is an important driving force in migration and commuting because urban areas offer many economic opportunities to rural people through better jobs, new skills and cultural changes. They noted that the relative proximity of urban populations to farming land may be a root cause behind the factors that contribute to loss of agricultural land and agricultural intensification. Population pressure essentially has led to suburbanization, the spreading of out of urban areas and lower density leaving for a substantial fraction of the population. This has produced a land use and quality of life problem, using up large amount of fringe areas with loss agricultural and ecological benefits.

The supply of land for urban development is determined by the customary land owners and the demand for the urban land comes from the private sector, public sector and the civil society (individuals). Such lands are put into uses that will benefit the urban populations to the neglect of agriculture. A great deal of fragmentation of holding have been going on in most densely populated areas of West Africa and the nations have always attempted to intervene in order to reverse the dominance of small holder agriculture and increase the size of production units. Urbanization leads to the inaccessibility of land, land fragmentation, change in land supply, and rapid increment in land values. This does not create a favourable environment for the development of agriculture.

It is widely recognized that in addition to the direct effects development has on agriculture (the loss of land that had been in agricultural production), development also affects the remaining agriculture indirectly (Berry, 1978; Berry and Plaut, 1978; Plaut, 1980; Lopez et al., 1988; Lockeretz, 1989; Adelaja et al., 1998). These indirect effects can be placed in four categories (Lopez et al., 1988): regulatory effects, technical efficiency effects, speculative effects and market effects. For the most part, these indirect effects of development increase costs and thereby reduce the profitability of staying in production agriculture.

Motamed et al., (2010) noted that locations with more favorable natural agriculture endowments tend to get urbanized earlier in history. Improvement in agricultural productivity is hence believed to be an important contributor to the urbanization process. The argument is that higher agricultural productivity provides food and other agricultural products with less manpower and thus allows for a shift of labor out of agriculture and into industry.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Conversion of agricultural land to non agricultural uses is becoming a thing of concern in Rivers state. A prominent feature of this global trend of urbanization is forced displacement triggered by armed conflict, violence, political instability or slow and sudden onset disasters or a combination of these factors. To accommodate the natural population growth of the region and the influx of the people from the other areas, more and more agricultural land is being converted to non agricultural uses and building of infrastructure thereby affecting agricultural productivity and activities and as a result, there will be scarcity of food going by the rate at which urbanization is taking rapid effect in Rivers state. The present research examines the impact of urbanization on agricultural development in order to determine to what extent agricultural land has been lost and to make projections of what might be expected in the near future.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The main aim of study is the impact of urbanization on agricultural development. Other specific objectives include:

1. to determine the relationship between urbanization and agricultural development in Rivers state.

2. to identify the land use practices prevalent in Rivers state.

3. to examine the impact of urbanization on agricultural development in Rivers state.

4. to identify the constraints to agricultural productivity in Rivers state.

5. to proffer solution to the constraints to agricultural productivity in Rivers state.

  1. RESEARCH QUESTION

1. What is the relationship between urbanization and agricultural development in Rivers state?

2. What are the land use practices prevalent in Rivers State?

3. What is the impact of urbanization on agricultural development in Rivers state?

4. What are the constraints to agricultural productivity in Rivers state?

5. What is the solution to the constraints to agricultural productivity in Rivers state?

  1. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1. H0: urbanization has no significant impact on agricultural development in Rivers state.

2. H1: urbanization has a significant impact on agricultural development in Rivers state.

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study will be beneficial to Rivers state government that specific areas should be earmarked for agricultural use only and protected from encroachment and other competing uses through appropriate legislations. Also, the study will be used by policy makers to make policies that will grant farmers secured right to use land should be implemented for increased productivity.

Findings of this study will create awareness to the people of Rivers state to understand the dangers of Urbanization to Agricultural development in the state.

Finally, the study will serve as a research tool to other researchers for further study on similar subject matter.

  1. SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of study will cover the impact of urbanization on agricultural development in Rivers state.

  1. LIMITATION OF STUDY

1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Impact: the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another.

Urbanization: Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural areas to urban areas, the decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

Agricultural development: Agricultural development is defined as the process that creates the conditions for the fulfillment of agricultural potential. Cash crops the sustainability of production processes and agricultural growth; and the efficiency of the allocation of agricultural products.

Agricultural development is the ability to develop some “better” system of agricultural production. For many rural poor the world over, human labor is a major constraint to greater agricultural production.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:56
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis
Price:₦3,000
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