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THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF MOUNT CARMEL COLLEGE, MAKURDI, BENUE STATE)

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract ::   510 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Learning and teaching is the concern of Though learning is a complex process, it can however, be defined as a change in disposition, a relatively permanent change in behavior overtime and this is brought about by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, facts, principles, new information at hand etc. (Adeyanju, 1997) Learning can be reinforced with instructional materials of different variety because they stimulate, motivate and as well as arrest learners’ attention for a while during the instruction process. Instructional materials are learning aids and devices through which teaching and learning are done in schools. According to Akamobi, (1998) instructional materials are those materials used in classroom or workshops for instruction or demonstration purpose by students and teachers. Chauha (1973) saw them as actual equipment used as “hands on” process by learners in order to develop the degree of skills sought by the course of requirement.

        Social studies was introduced into the Nigerian school system to achieve one of the philosophies of Nigerian education as indicated in the National Policy on Education which is “the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen” (FGN, 2004). The realization of this objective through Social studies is possible since the subject is an integrated programme which are taught and learnt in Social studies looks at all aspects of the life of the child in the society. It is further stated in the National Policy on Education (2004) that education is to achieve the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigerian society. Therefore, Social Studies teaching has been a factor in determining whether a society will have democratic attitudes, values, problem-solving and decision-making skills and whether the society will consist of productive and participatory individuals (Ozturk and Otluoglu, 2002; Keeler, 2008). In Social Studies teaching, which is given such an important mission; it is possible to make the learning process easy, enduring and meaningful through the use of instructional materials. Orakwe (2000) refers to instructional materials as information repositories from the society sourced to transfer the desired information to the learners during classroom instruction. Agwu (2001) views Instructional Materials as those apparatus of teaching which may include textbooks, workbooks, charts, audio visual aids, chemicals, specimens and other relevant things that will attract students’ attention, and which should only be introduced at the appropriate time by the teacher.

Instructional materials are software and hardware that are used to make lessons more meaningful and clearer to learners. They are devises that appeal to multi model senses which help the learners conceive, perceive, internalize, interpret and transfer the experiences gained to similar or different learning situations. These materials and equipment, could be those that appeal to the sense of hearing-known as audio material/ equipment those of seeing called visual materials/equipment and those that combine the two senses called audio-visual materials.

The teacher alone cannot provide all the needed condition for an effective teaching and learning process, other supporting materials should be provided. The students learn better when most of the senses are appealed to the instruction and use of instructional materials in Social Studies education has added a new dimension in the positive promotion of the teaching and learning process. It provides the much need sensory experiences needed by the learners for an effective and meaningful behavioural change. Instructional materials are meant to improve the quality of education for effective learning of students in schools. The performance of the students on the intended learning outcome provide the validation – loop on the success other interaction and instruction (Bakare1986).

In making use of any instructional materials factors that influence it must be considered, such materials must be previewed that is, having full knowledge of the material; prepare the environment where it will be used; prepare audience by means of making sure that the materials to be used will attract attention, arouse, motivate and provide the rationale that could be used in the beginning, middle or end. The effectiveness of utilizing appropriate instructional materials in teaching and learning of Social Studies is not void of quality instructor. In order to give quality education to the younger generation, there is need for employment of morecompetent, experienced and qualified Social Studies teachers. The need to identify the suitable instructional materials, by which students can be made to comprehend the extent of the subject easily and intelligibly, is the focus of this study. An in depth look at the secondary schools Social Studies programmes revealed that there is the need for improving all phases of the programmes (IMAA, 2004). For example, there is need for the introduction and use of instructional materials and equipments for use in both the classrooms and Social Studies Museum. The broad aim of any good training materials are to induce and support the learning process that leads to improve on-the-job performance through affecting changes in the knowledge, attitudes, skills and practices of the learners. With the above reasons, it is worth investigating the influence of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Social Studies in our Secondary Schools, for better performance of students in their examination and chosen career in any field of life. If instructional materials are used in Secondary Schools, it would help improving the teaching and learning and hence the learning of students in Social Studies effectively.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The use of instructional materials in teaching and learning social studies education in secondary schools is very important; however most secondary schools in makurdi,Benue state do not have adequate funds for the provision of instructional materials for the teaching and learning social studies in secondary schools. Another problem faced by secondary schools in makrudi is lack of qualified teachers with good experience on how to use instructional materials in teaching and learning social studies education in secondary schools.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study seeks to determine the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies education. The objectives of the study are:

  1. To determine the relationship between instructional materials and the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college.
  2. To determine the types of instructional used in the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college, makurdi, Benue state
  3. To determine the importance of the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college
  4. To  recommend ways to improve the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college, Makurdi, Benue State

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions guide the objectives of the study:

  1. What is the relationship between instructional materials and the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college?
  2. What are the types of instructional used in the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college, makurdi, Benue state?
  3. What is the importance of the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college?
  4. What are the ways to improve the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college, Makurdi, Benue State?

1.5 STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

H0: there is no relationship between instructional materials and the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college

H1: there is significant relationship between instructional materials and the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study on the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies education will be of immense benefit to the entire students of mount carmel college, Makurdi, Benue State. The study will establish a correlation between between instructional materials and the teaching and learning of social studies education in mount carmel college. The study will serve as a guide to teachers and school administration on the use of instructional materials in teaching social studies education in secondary schools. The study will also serve as a repository of information to other researchers and students that desire to carry out similar research on the above topic. Finally the study the study will contribute to the body of the existing literature on the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies education.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study covers on the effect of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies education with focus on mount carmel college, Makurdi, Benue State

1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work

1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS

SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION: Social studies education is an interdisciplinary integration of several social sciences including economics, government and citizenship, historical perspectives, psychology, and sociology.

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS: Instructional Materials, also known as Teaching/Learning Materials, are any collection of materials including animate and inanimate objects and human and non-human resources that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:56
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract
Price:₦3,000
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