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THE ROLE OF GUIDANCE COUNSELORS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION IN AKWA IBOM STATE

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 90 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract ::   343 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Education is one of the vital instructions in development. According to the National Policy on Education (1998) “Education in Nigeria is an instrument “per excellence’ for effecting national development Certainly, what Nigeria needs in this 2Pt century to turn her economy around is not extended primary or elementary education, but a basic education programme that will ensure that every Nigerian youth on graduation is sufficiently equipped with knowledge, skills, and experiences required for initial entry into one occupation in the world of work, whether college bound or not (Anyabolu, 2000).

Universal Basic Education (UBE) is a reformed programme in Nigeria’s basic education delivery (from primary one, all through to junior secondary school class 3) and is to reinforce the implementation of the National Policy on Education (NPE) in order to provide greater access and ensure quality throughout the Federation as it is free and compulsory (Adomeh, Arhedo & Omoike; 2007). Importantly, Nigeria is adopting UBE and as a process of fulfilling the aim of Education For All (EFA) as endorsed at the World conference on education held in Jomtien in 1990. According to the world conference on education, basic education is made free and available to all and sundry, thus emphasizing free access, equity, efficiency, literacy, numeracy and lifelong skills for all.

Therefore, UBE is being implemented in Nigeria as a lasting legacy for the eradication of illiteracy. The Federal Government intervention is quarterly (4 times in a year), and a counterpart fund of equal amount is expected from the states and is expended as follows: Nursery (5%), Primary (60%) and Junior Secondary School (35%), while it is disbursed in each level of education as follows: infrastructure (70%), manpower development (15%), and instructional material (15%) (Ekpunobi, 2006). To achieve this laudable goal, a 9-year continuous free and compulsory education was proposed for immediate implementation. Following the declaration by the Federal Government of Nigeria for the introduction of 9–year free and compulsory basic education structures, which cover the primary and Junior Secondary School strategies have been put in place by the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) to re-structured and re-align the school curricula for the 9–year basic education (Obioma, 2006). A total of 19 curricula have been produced to cover the Junior Primary (years 1 – 3) Senior Primary (years 4 – 6) and Junior Secondary School (JSS) (years 7 – 9). Primary science has been replaced by Basic Science and Technology for Junior and Senior Primary School levels, while Integrated Science has been replaced by Basic Science for JSS level (Nneji, 2006; Obong, 2006). A major gain from this educational system is that the contents of the new curricula reflect both the emerging issues and national values.

It is worthy to mention here that the roles being played by the Notational Commission for Mass Literacy Adult and Non-Formal Education (NMEC) in preparation for the smooth take off UBE. The Commission has the mandate to eradicate illiteracy in Nigeria. In spite of all the reforms in the education sector: a lot of school age children still drop out of school for many socio-cultural and economic reasons. Many adults are also unable to take advantage of existing literacy programmes for many socio- cultural and economic reasons. In an effort to fulfil her mandate and meet the EFA goals of eradicating 50 million illiterate living in Nigeria out of the world 171 million illiterates world-wide, NMEC is partnering with United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and United Nations Children‘s Find (UNICEF) in a programme: “Increasing Access to Community Education and Literacy (Adomeh et al, 2007; Nkwoma, 2006)

The teaching-learning process features dynamic persons who are subject to influences from several extraneous variables. They have a past which shaped their present; they are grappling with a present which is shaping their future and they have a future to look forward to which makes existence meaningful. The ability of the individual learner to harmonize his past, present and future facilitates learning and overall achievement in life, hence the need for the services of counsellors to facilitate the process of harmonization. Counseling draws upon the past of an individual and brings it to bear on the present of the same individual in order to fashion a future that ensures self-realization and self actualization of such individual. This is only possible where you have appropriate and accurate data to analyze and interpret. The counsellor has a pronounced role to play both in the collation and interpretation of data in school based assessment especially in the affective and psychomotor domains.

Universal Basic Education is not new to the Nigerian educational scene? Access to education has been a major focus for Nigeria since the introduction of the University Primary Education (UPE) scheme in the mid 1970s. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) scheme is a follow up programmes adopted by the government as part of her effort to make education affordable to the ordinary man. Since the goal of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme is to universalize access to basic education, engenders a conducive learning environment especially now that the programme has been reviewed from primary to secondary.

It is a known fact that one of the greatest problems in the implementation of the universal primary education (UPE) in the 1970s is laying emphasis on irrelevant and dysfunctional education. Education is expected to prepare man to face the challenges of life; it prepares man for worthwhile living. Until recently and still to some extent today, the Nigeria educational programme has been theoretical and academic starting from primary school to the tertiary level.

It is in light of this that the federal government in the 6-3-3-4 system of education prescribes that institutions of learning must establish effective and Functional Guidance and Counseling Centers or units (CFRN, 2004). In line with the goal of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme to Universalize access education engenders a conducive learning environment especially now that the programme has been reviewed from primary to junior secondary.

With guidance and counseling in place, it will enable pupils in the primary and students in the Junior Secondary Schools choose the right course (s) compatible to their innate potentials, attributes, characteristics, motivations and interests, also to ensure that square pegs are not out in round holes (Iroegbu 2006). The Universal Basic Education (UBE) needs guidance and counseling services to achieve these goals. The guidance counselor needs to go the extra mile of creating the awareness and soliciting the assistance of class teachers for referrals”.

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In spite of all the reforms in the education sector: a lot of school age children still drop out of school for many socio-cultural and economic reasons. Many adults are also unable to take advantage of existing literacy programmes for many socio- cultural and economic reasons.

The current trends in education seem to point to the fact that quality of education has been on the decline. The rate of failures and drop - out at the lower levels of education has been on the upsurge. This development has been attributed to so many factors working in combinations, which may be socio - cultural, psychological, and economic pedagogical and so on. In the search for ways of ameliorating the problems, guidance and counseling has been identified as one powerful tool that could help in improving the quality of academic performances and by implication the Universal Basis Education (UBE).

A lot of research has revealed that attempts in the past to provide free education whether at the federal or state levels has never been successful due to poor planning and implementation. This view was supported by Nwagwu (2000) who sees poor planning as one of the problems responsible for the unsuccessful implementation of the former UPE programme. They posited that the planners of the programme were unable to project fairly accurate number of children that would gain from the scheme. Adequate efforts therefore, should be made to counter all the factors which led to the unsuccessful implementation of similar programmes in the past; hence the research on the role of guidance counselors in implementation of universal basic education.

  1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The main aim of the research is to examine the role of guidance counselors in implementation of universal basic education. Other specific objectives include:

1. to determine the relationship between guidance counselors and universal basic education in Akwa ibom State.

2. to ascertain the impact of guidance counselors in the implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State.

3. to examine the role of guidance counselors in implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State.

4. to identify the challenges towards the implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State.

5. to proffer solutions to the challenges towards the implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State.

  1. RESEARCH QUESTION

1. What is the relationship between guidance counselors and universal basic education in Akwa ibom State?

2. What is the impact of guidance counselors in the implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State?

3. What is the role of guidance counselors in implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State?

4. What are the challenges towards the implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State?

5. what is the solution to the challenges towards the implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State?

  1. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

1. H0: guidance counselors have no significant role in the implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State.

2. H1: guidance counselors have significant role in the implementation of universal basic education Akwa Ibom State.

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This study will significantly impact on the education sector in Akwa Ibom State and the country at large in tackling the challenges that impedes on the implementation of universal basic education.

This study will also be an added knowledge to the education sector in Nigeria in understanding the role guidance counselors’ must play if the implementation of universal basic education must be achieved.

Furthermore, guidance counselors through the findings of this study will be aware of the role they must play in the implementation of the universal basic education.

It is also hoped that through this study, the public would be able to define the significance of the UBE programme as an instrument for effecting national development. Thus, the outcome will reveal the extent to which the community is mobilized and enlightened in the area of increasing pupil’s enrolment and retention in schools.

The result of the research findings would improve upon the expanded vision of the Universal Basic Education program in promoting equity, access to learning, enhancing a conducive environment for learning and strengthening partnership.

Lastly, the findings of this study will contribute to the body of existing literature on the role of guidance counselors in implementation of universal basic education. And will also serve as a research tool for further research on the subject matter by other researchers.

  1. SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of this study will cover the role of guidance counselors in implementation of universal basic education in Akwa Ibom State.

  1. LIMITATION OF STUDY

1. Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

2. Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Role: A role (also role or social role) is a set of connected behaviors, rights, obligations, beliefs, and norms as conceptualized by people in a social situation. It is an expected or free or continuously changing behavior and may have a given individual social status or social position.

Guidance counselors: a person who gives help and advice to students about educational and personal decisions.

Implementation: the process of putting a decision or plan into effect; execution.

Universal basic education: The Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme is a nine (9) year basic educational programme, which was launched and executed by the government and people of the Federal Republic of Nigeria to eradicate illiteracy, ignorance and poverty as well as stimulate and accelerate national development, political consciousness.


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:90
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract
Price:₦3,000
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