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THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE-LED POLICING IN CURBING CONTEMPORARY CRIMES IN NIGERIA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 97 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   4,092 people found this useful

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CHAPTER 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION

With the advent of advanced crime syndicates and evolving crime patterns, Police forces across the world are currently facing severe challenges in policing their respective countries and communities. A major challenge is the increasing ‘globalization of criminality” in the form of transnational organized crimes that threaten national and global economic development and political stability.

Crimes such as Armed robbery, terrorism, Money Laundering, Vandalizing Government properties, corruption, drug trafficking, human trafficking, theft of mineral resources, arms smuggling and trade in fake and substandard pharmaceutical and industrial products amongst others have evolved from what it was in the 20th century.

For these crimes to abate there is need to take a proactive approach rather than reactive approach which is the traditional policing model, to prevent crime, knowledge and intelligence beyond local and national jurisdictions are more than often required. furthermore it is necessary for the law enforcement agencies to understand that the acquisition of knowledge for the policing of these crimes requires dynamic engagement and partnership among security and intelligence agencies as well as between law enforcement agencies and critical non-law enforcement stakeholders within and across nations.

In relation to the terrorist attack in the United States of America on the 11th September 2001, Peterson, (2005) pointed out that four critical lessons are to be learned from that tragedy.
The first is that, intelligence collection is everyone’s job; secondly, a culture of intelligence and collaboration is necessary to protect the United States from all types of crime and threats; thirdly, for intelligence to be effective, it should support the law enforcement agency’s entire operation; and, lastly, crime prevention and deterrence should be based on all-source information gathering and analysis. As a way forward, the police had to develop a policing concept that embraces intelligence as its cornerstone.

The United Kingdom faced with the challenge of high and violent crimes invented the Intelligence led policing model, Presently Nigeria is faced with similar or even more direchallenges with crime, Hence the need for the Nigerian Police to revamp its policing. In order to combat and reduce crime levels, the Nigerian Police needs to find and apply an effective policing strategy. The adoption of the intelligence led policing concept may be an answer to the high increasing crime rate in Nigeria. Intelligence led policing, also known as intelligence driven policing, has been proved internationally to be one of the most effective policing models for reducing crime.

1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

According to the Nigerian Bureau of Statistic, reported armed robbery cases perpetuated by males rose from between 10,500 cases in 2007 to over 17,500 in 2010. The need to manage and decrease crime rate in Nigeria has increased exponentially Trešdiena, (2007)

Intelligence led policing has gradually established itself as the modern approach to crime management. Its principle is that the police should not try to police an entire community, but instead use the crime intelligence products, like crime pattern analysis, crime threat analysis, and the Station Crime Intelligence Profile to police identified crime “hot spots” and known criminals or gangs.

Intelligence led policing has a number of advantages over the traditional approach of policing. The first advantage is that policing resources are used more realistically and more effectively; the second is that, when criminal behavior is being investigated, intelligence led policing seeks to establish links and patterns between individual crimes, by identifying crime series; the third is that it takes a long-term view of combating crime by supplying a range of preventative measures, including recommending legislative and policing changes, implementing neighborhood watch schemes, using closed circuit television systems, and using more direct patrols (Zinn, 2010). The high level of crime in the country is an indication of the failure of the state, through its organs like the police, to protect its citizens. This is further confirmed by electronic and print media which show horrific scenes and tell heart breaking stories of people who are raped, robbed, and murdered on a daily basis.

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

What really instigated the study was the growth rate of organized crimes in Nigeria; the security system in Nigeria has overtime tends to be less effective in curbing major crimes; these lapses in usually found in the police department because of lack of intelligent-led policing in the Nigeria police force.

The principle of intelligence-led policing describes how knowledge and understanding of criminal threats are used to drive law enforcement actions in response to threat of organized crime. There is need for overall improvement in the overall responses in the police department therefore; it will be very disastrous that as security professionals, there is a low knowledge of intelligence in dissolution of organized crimes in Nigeria.

Another issue in the Nigeria security unit was seen as lack of operational effort in the highest priority areas which as at today puts terrorism at the top within the Nigerian internal security space and in the global crime.

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the role of intelligence-led policing in curbing contemporary crimes in Nigeria will be of immense benefit to the entire security unit in Nigeria especially the police force as it will examine the effect of intelligence-led policing on the efficiency and effectiveness of the operation of the security units in Nigeria. The study will provide information to the federal government and the security unit on how to manage contemporary crimes in Nigeria. The study will also investigate on the factors affecting the implementation of intelligent-led policing in curbing contemporary crimes in Nigeria. Finally the study will be of immense benefit to other researchers that wishes to carry out similar research on the above topic and also contributes to the body of the existing literature on the intelligence-led policing in curbing contemporary crimes in Nigeria.

1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY

This study is limited to composed case studies of Nigerian Police Force and involved delving into the nature and scope of the crime problems targeted, methods used in tackling these crimes. Examining the Policing institution changes made to address those crime problems. Other paramilitary and military apparatus will not be included in this.

1.6 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF STUDY

INTELLIGENCE-LED POLICING: is a policing model built around the assessment and management of risk. Intelligence officers serve as guides to operations, rather than operations guiding intelligence.

CONTEMPORARY CRIMES: in accordance to the study are crimes that are happening at the same time. These crimes are planned and organized

CURBING: restrain or keep in check of crimes in Nigeria

1.7 LITERATURE REVIEW

Intelligence collection in the form of espionage is one of the oldest professions in the history of mankind. Historical records show that it is the second oldest profession after prostitution (Hughes-Wilson, 2005). The creation of kings and emperors, and, later on kingdoms, empires, and states led to the institutionalization of intelligence as a means of controlling and ruling others. Intelligence has always been, and will always be, the vital tool for victory in war and in peace. This chapter covers the origin, development, and use of intelligence in the ancient world, during the dark ages, the middle ages, the renaissance, and up until the birth of modern intelligence and criminal intelligence.

1.7.1 INTELLIGENCE AND THE HUMAN RACE

(Bowers, 1984) states that, the collection of intelligence dates back to the beginning of mankind. Primitive man sought answers to questions relating to his survival and comfort. The need to know is, thus, deeply embedded in the human biological and social make up as much as the need to reproduce. In order to survive, human beings need information about their surroundings, with regard to threats and food supply for instance. Thus, collecting information on these basic needs is a key to survival. As one of mankind’s basic survival instincts, intelligence is as old as humanity itself (Hughes-Wilson, 2005). Naturally, human beings and their institutions have their own secrets which are things that are hidden from one human being to another, one institution to another, and from one nation or state to another. The wish to conceal things from one another is caused by fear, weakness, greed, or shame. On the other hand, humans also have the inherited traits of curiosity. This is also a natural instinct of wanting to know the secrets of the other side and explore them. The existence of these two mutually-opposing forces, namely (curiosity versus secrecy), led to natural competition amongst enemies and sometimes amongst friends and allies (Hughes-Wilson, 2005). The next paragraph will explore the evolution of information collection from the ancient world up to the modern age.

1.7.2 INTELLIGENCE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD

Throughout history, intelligence has been defined as the collection, culling, analysis, and dissemination of critical and strategic information (Lerner, 2010). Information was primarily collected about the threats against the ruling regimes. The practice of collecting information about the threats against the ruling regimes and kings started 6000 years ago in Mesopotamia. This was done by establishing institutions and assigning individual persons to collect information on any threats, either individuals or nations, threatening the security of the ruling regime. The oldest form of information collection is espionage, which is well documented in political and military arts (Lerner, 2010).

(Crowdy, 2006) agrees with (Cardwell, 2004) that the first documented story of spies in the bible appears in the book of Genesis, when Joseph accused his brothers of being Canaanite spies reconnoitering for unprotected spots along the Egyptian border. This story is confirms the fact that Ancient Egypt was concerned about foreign spies infiltrating its borders. (Cardwell, 2004) went further to state that the first actual act of spying took place under the direction of Moses who sent twelve spies, each from the twelve tribes of Israel to the promised land. The second act took place under the leadership of Joshua who sent to spies to Jericho before launching a military campaign to conquer the city.

According to (Crowdy, 2006) another record of the use of spies in the ancient world is the story of the battle of Kadesh. In this story the Egyptians under the leadership of Pharaoh Rameses managed to defeat the Hittite of king Muwatallis. King Muwatallis sent two spies who disguised as deserters from the Hittite army. They told Pharaoh Rameses that the Hittite army is still far away with the intention of ambushing the Egyptian army. Rameses believed what they told him, but fortunately the Egyptian army managed to avert the ambush after another two spies where captured and told the truth about the ambush during the interrogation.

Sheldon (2011:50-51) describes the importance and dangers of intelligence work in the ancient world by stating that “ancient spies, unlike their modern counterparts, did not retire and write memoirs about their experiences. Their failure meant their execution or a major military disaster”. This statement is an indication of how intelligence work is valued. Victory and defeat in battle depends on proper and accurate intelligence. Intelligence has always formed part of statecraft and warfare. It was a vital tool to rulers, of ancient empires or even cities. It was used to control the inhabitants, keep the rulers abreast of political developments abroad, and informed of the internal security of their regimes. Every possible way of gathering information was used to enable them to make informed decisions. There are four main civilisations which contributed greatly to the intelligence tradecraft. These are Egypt, Rome, Greece, and Ancient China.

1.7.2.1 Egypt

Spies and acts of information collection appear in some of the world’s earliest recorded history. Egyptian hieroglyphs reveal the presence of court spies, as do papyri describing ancient Egypt’s extensive military and slave trade operations. Early Egyptian Pharaohs employed the agents of espionage to collect or gather information about disloyal subjects and to identify tribes that could be conquered and enslaved (Lerner, 2010:1). From 1000 BC onwards, Egyptian espionage operations focused on foreign intelligence about the political and military strength of their rivals, Greece and Rome. Egyptian spies made significant contributions to espionage trade craft.

Owing to the fact that the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, and Rome employed literate subjects in their civil service, many spies dealt with written communications to gather the required information. The use of written messages brought some challenges to the intelligence environment which led to the development of codes, disguised writing, trick inks, and hidden compartments in clothing. Egyptian spies were the first to develop the extensive use of poison, including toxins derived from plants and snakes, to carry-out assassinations and acts of sabotage (Lerner, 2010). Hieroglyphs show the practice of intelligence during ancient times. These ancient writings tell a story of the triumphant campaign against the Syrian uprising of 1488 BC by Tutmoses III (a Pharaoh).

According to the hieroglyphs, the secret agents of the pharaoh in Megiddo informed him about the rebellion months before it started. These undercover spies noted Kadesh‟s growing army in the north and immediately rode south to warn the Egyptian outpost Fort at Tjuru, near present day Port Said, of the gathering storm. The speedy reaction of the pharaoh to the intelligence given made it possible to crush the rebellion (Hughes-Wilson, 2005).

1.7.2.2 Rome


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Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:97
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references
Price:₦3,000
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