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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 120 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis ::   816 people found this useful

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  1.       Background to the Study

Business education is a subset of vocational education that deals with business opportunities, it is of great importance to individuals and the economy of a nation. It is an aspect of educational programme offered at the intermediate and higher institutions of learning to prepare students for careers in business (Odesanya, 2012).

Ekpenyong (1995) in Azuka (2004) states that business education is a programme of study that provides people with opportunity to develop and acquire abilities, skills, knowledge and understanding, which will enable them explore and utilize the broad field of business and also assume their civic responsibilities through enlightened participation in the activities in the society. It is a course that prepares students for entry into and advancement in jobs within business and it is equally important because it prepares students to handle their own business affairs and to function intelligently as consumers and citizens in a business economy (Nwosu, 2009). Also it is a programme of instruction which consist of two parts (1) Office education, a vocational programme of office careers through initial, refresher and upgrading education and (2) General business education, a programme to provide students with information and competences which are needed by all in managing personal business affairs and in using the services of the business.

The emergence of career education and increasing interest of students in job – related courses and the employers’ of labour emphasis on production skills acquisition before job placement have generated a need for rapid expansion of employment-related education in Nigeria, especially now that Nigeria is undergoing economic and technological development. The pertinent question of concern includes: Is preparing youths for employment through tertiary education level an acceptable goal of universities education? Or whether the employers of labour should accept the responsibility for training directly? Based on the provision of the National Policy on Education, (2013) the society has long accepted preparation for employment as a valid goal of education bearing in mind that majority of the youths in Nigeria may not continue their formal education beyond secondary school. One of the philosophies of business education is pragmatism which stresses skill acquisition from secondary to tertiary level of education. For this to be achieved, a more serious training and exposure are desired so as to meet the present trend of economic and technological development.

Nigerian government had tried to divert a lot of the unemployed youths to areas where they could be self-employed by establishing a National Directorate of Employment and Youth Empowerment Scheme to help the youths acquire marketable skills (Musari, 2009).The Scheme have much to offer, but the unskilled youths need to be trained or given basic knowledge on how to be more marketable, youths are to serve themselves and the nation in their fullest capacity. This posture should be adopted because more youths are demanding education which prepares them for jobs and because the society is more willing to support education which has career preparation as its goal (Okafor 2011). Another question that addresses the future of production skill acquisition is, at what level should the production skills be taught? Preparation of adolescents and youths for the world of work is based on two major facts: the acquisition of knowledge about employment opportunities, requirements and trends; and the possession of economical and qualifications that are saleable in employment market(Adeyemi, 2011).

In order to make Nigerian graduates more resourceful and self-reliant, the Federal Ministry of Education introduced entrepreneurship education into the curricula of the Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education through their regulatory/supervisory agencies - National Universities Commission (NUC), National Board for Technical Education (NABTE) and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE). It was incorporated into the curricula of tertiary institutions effective from the 2007/2008 academic period (ILO, 2010). Technical support has also been extended to tertiary institutions in Nigeria to teach entrepreneurship education. At the moment, the Nigerian Universities Commission had created massive awareness at workshops for students and academic community on the entrepreneurship education, while NUC also maintained international collaboration and Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the National Science Foundation of United States of America, the British Council and a host of others agencies for the purpose of promoting entrepreneurship culture (Ogundele2009).

The development process of any country is determined by the way the production forces in the economy is organized. For most countries the development of industry had depended a great deal on the role of private sector. Skill acquisition programme has played a major role in this regard. This opinion is supported by Ogundele (2009) that the promotion and development of skill acquisition programme would aid the dispersal and diversification of economic activities and induce even development in a country. Similarly, Osuagwu (2006) added that skill acquisition programme in Nigeria should be perceived as a catalyst to increase the rate of economic growth, create job opportunities, reduces import of manufactured goods and decrease the trade deficits that result from such imports. Furthermore, Ariyo (2008) noted that if Nigeria wants to reach its full potential in terms of economic and social developments, it cannot afford to ignore the importance of its indigenous entrepreneurs and the contributions that they make to the country’s economy. Skill acquisition programmeremains the gateway to sustainable wealth creation in Nigeria,skills like entrepreneurial skills, team work skills, leadership skills, term management skills, problem solving skills, computer skills, interpersonal skills, analytical skills etc.   (Arogundade, 2011).  

In view of Matanmi and Awodun (2005), if Nigeria desires to move out of the disturbing high level of unemployment and ravaging level of poverty, adequate attention must be given to the growth of skill acquisition programme. They concluded that Nigeria still remain in a state of poverty because of the combination of ignorance, low capacity building, lack of encouragement of entrepreneurship and lack of appropriate  teaching strategies in the classroom. The successful contribution of skill acquisition programme to business venturing, poverty alleviation and economic development in most societies depends on skill acquisition programme, training and orientation.

According to Emmanuel (2006), teaching is a continuous process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners through use of appropriate strategies. Ifeagwu (2000) indicated that in order to bring desirable changes in students, teaching strategies used by educators should be best for the subject matter. Furthermore, Bolarin and Akinpelu (1999) affirms that teaching strategies work effectively mainly if they suit learners’ needs since every learner interprets and responds to questions in a unique way. With the increasing development in the world of industry and trade, the educational sector is challenged with the task of producing competent students in the field of Business Education (accounting option). This imposes great demand on the lecturers to devise appropriate teaching strategies that could deliver the right students to face the emerging challenges (Otokiti, 2010).

Guided discovery strategy involves the lecturer planning the students learning programme on the basis of the learners level of cognitive development.  The teachers then guides the learner to find the answer- reframing the question and task, if necessary (Obi, 2005).  Guided discovery is a powerful instructional approach that guides and motivate learners to explore information and concepts in order to construct new ideas, identify new relationships and create new models of thinking and behavior. It is highly experimental and interactive. It make a use of stories, games simulations, visual maps and other techniques to get attention,   build interest and lead learners on a journey of discovery towards new thinking, actions and behavior (Okoli, 2010). Guided discovery strategy incorporate three key models: firstly, problem solving: the learning design must guide and motivates learners to participate in problem solving as they pull together information and generalized knowledge.  Secondly, Learner’s management: learning must be learner-driven so that participants working alone or in small teams can learn in their own pace. Thirdly, integrating and connecting: Learning must encourage the integration of new knowledge into the learners existing knowledge and clearly connect to the real world, what is important is how to get Accounting lecturers depart from the traditional method of teaching to integrate active learning approach (Olatoke, 2004).

Demonstration strategy is a practical presentation of processes/procedures/skills which are designed to illustrate theoretical principles. Demonstration requires careful sequencing, oral and visual explanations, appropriate illustrations and opportunities for students to pose questions and clarify problems (Olatoke, 2004).

Effective demonstration strategy should follow three steps of the “learning cycle”, that is the stimulus step (introducing the problem), the assimilative step (demonstration and development of the understanding by the learner) and the application step.

The demonstration step gives learners the opportunity to see and hear the details related to skill being taught. Those details include the necessary background knowledge, the steps or procedure, the nomenclature and the safety precautions. The repetition step helps the average and slow learners to gives them an additional opportunity to see and hear the skill being taught. The performance step gives all learners the opportunity to become proficient. For convenience, the techniques for imparting skills are presented in steps, rather than activities. 

Demonstration strategy has been recommended for teaching Accounting in the universities because this approach utilizes several senses; students can see, hear and possibly experience an active event, it stimulates interests, present ideas and concepts more clearly, provides direct experience and reinforces learning which contributes a lot to skill acquisition.

Accounting Education is an aspect of Business Education offered in Colleges of Education and Universities (Akintelure, 1998). From the author’s experience, many students are scared of Accounting because it has some mathematical perspectives. Accounting is not more difficult than other disciplines but its mathematical in nature which is one of the features that could affect students’ choice of the discipline. Therefore, the issues of gender  differences in learning of Accounting is complex and  controversial in nature, most scholars believed that male students  are better  than their female counterpart in studying Accounting, but the most efficient in this  study is the application of these skills been  taught in Accounting to the day to day activities they are involved. 

Basically, teaching strategies should aim at promoting learning among the students and be adapted to competency goals of the curriculum, foster higher order skills such as "examine", “analyze”, "discuss"  "explore", and provide guidelines on how the strategies should be used. According to Okoro (1993), a prerequisite for effective teaching is that “teachers master a broad range of teaching principles and know how they can be applied in different situations to promote learning".  From a practical point of view, no teaching strategies is better than another, even though strategies differ considerably from a theoretical point of view. In ideal educational settings, strategies must be adapted to the students’ and teacher’s characteristics, interests and needs, as well as to the subject matter being taught and the educational context where it is taught. Given this background, this study is to critically examine the effect teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students in public university in South West, Nigeria.



1.2       Statement of the Problem

Knowledge of Business Education (Accounting bias)enables students to appreciate the basic rules, functions and principles of Accounting. The course also helps to lay proper foundation for further study of Accounting and allied courses at higher level and to enable the students understand basic Accounting principles, practice and their applications to modern business world. Unfortunately this is not so with our graduates. The trends of performance in students’ achievement in Accounting have been quite discouraging. This could be a consequent of multi-variate factors among which teaching strategies is prominent. It calls for a need to ascertain teaching strategies that will improve their achievement. With the increasing development in the world of industry and trade, educational institutions are further challenged with the task of producing competent students in the field of Accounting. This imposes great demand on Accounting lecturers to devise appropriate teaching strategies that could deliver the productive students in accounting to face the emerging challenges.

Skills acquisition among Business Education (Accounting bias) students in public university, no doubt, depends on many factors of which teaching strategies are key factors. Students seem not to be taught with the necessary strategies that will arouse their interest in Business Education related courses such as Accounting. In some cases, lecturers tend not to use teaching strategies that will deliver the required skills. There seems to be little personal interaction between students and lecturers in the use of teaching strategies. Direct experience of the material being learnt seems to be completely absent from the teaching strategies. It usually takes the forms of prepared speech, lectures, story-telling, illustrated talks, use of resource persons etc. Whatever teaching strategies  being employed by a lecturer it should be directed towards encouraging active participation, active perception, active thinking and active acting on the parts of the students,  and also preparing them not to be job seeker only but an entrepreneur (job creator).

It is on this premise that the researcher intends to investigate the effect of teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students of public University in South-West, Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study is to examine effect of teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education (Accounting bias) students of public university in South-West, Nigeria. Other specific objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine the significant relationship among guided discovery, demonstration teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students in public University
  2. To examine the significant relative effect of guided-discovery and demonstration teaching strategies on skill acquisition among Business Education students in public university
  3. To determine the significant composite effect of guided-discovery and demonstration teaching strategies on skill acquisition among Business Education students in public university.
  4. To find out the gender difference between the self efficacy of students taught Accounting using guided-discovery and demonstration teaching strategies.

1.4       Research Questions

The following questions will be raised to guide the study:

  1. Does a significant relationship exist among guided-discovery, demonstration teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students in Public University?
  2. To what extent is the significant relative effect of guided-discovery and demonstration teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students in public university?
  3. Is there a significant composite effect of guided-discovery and demonstration teaching strategies on skill acquisition among Business Education students in Public University?
  4. What is the gender difference between the self efficacy of students taught Accounting using guided-discovery and demonstration teaching strategies?


1.5.      Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be proposed for testing in the study:

Ho1:     There is no significant relationship among guided-discovery, demonstration teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students in Public University.

Ho2:     There is no significant relative effect of guided discovery and demonstration teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students in Public University.

Ho3:     There is no significant composite effect of guided discovery and demonstration teaching strategies on skills acquisition among Business Education students in Public University

Ho4        There is no significant gender difference between the self efficacy of students taught Accounting using guided-discovery and demonstration teaching strategies.


1.6       Significance of the Study

The study will be beneficial to the lecturers in that they will be able to select appropriate teaching strategies and materials to suit different lessons for effective teaching of skills acquisition in public universities among Business Education students. The lecturers and the students will realized that the understanding of lessons in skills acquisition can be highly improved through demonstration strategy rather than the talk and chalk approach. Also, they will be aware that students’ learning is enhanced properly using guided discovery strategy to discover facts and principles by themselves rather than supplying them with everything by the lecturers.

Consequently, it becomes important that the result of this study would be of great benefit to all stakeholders and lecturers. It is anticipated that the analytical, conceptual and empirical studies will enhance the understanding of significant issues in assessing effect of guided-discovery strategy and demonstration strategy on Business Education students and would be useful to researchers like students in Universities when doing a likely research.

The findings of this study will be of benefit to Business Education lecturers. From the findings, they will have first-hand information on the effect of guided-discovery and demonstration strategies on Business Education students. The findings would expose them to the teaching techniques used in guided-discovery and demonstration strategies. The lecturers would employ some techniques in improving their teaching of Business Education (Accounting bias). The exposure of lecturers to this approaches will enable them apply the appropriate techniques that would help them achieve the educational objectives. The findings of the study will also be of benefit to researchers. From the findings, they would have knowledge of guided discovery and demonstration strategies of teaching Accounting which is one of the aspect of Business Education which will be a guide to them in their research work. The findings will serve as a reference material for their research.

It will also indicate the teaching approach in Accounting courses that enables the students perform well in their examinations. After being properly taught with one approach the students should be able to master the topics. The findings will be of great help to the society that will enjoy the services of Business Education graduates with bias in Accounting who are well trained through the use of these Accounting approaches (guided-discovery strategy and demonstration strategy) in other to bring out the required skills for the job or to create one (entrepreneur).


1.7       Scope of the Study

This study focuses on the effect of teaching strategies (i.e guided discovery and demonstration strategies) on skills acquisition of Business Education 300Level undergraduate students with Accounting bias in Lagos State University, Ojo  South-West, Nigeria. 


1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

The meaning of some terms is given below as used in the context of the study:

Accounting: It is the systematic, reporting, and analysis of financial transactions of a business.

Business Education: Is an aspect of vocational and technical education with a specialized programme of instruction designed to provide individual with knowledge skills and attitudes leading to employability and advancement in office occupations as well as teaching business subjects.

Demonstration Strategy: This is the concept that learners actively construct their own knowledge and meaning from their classroom experiences.

Guided-Discovery Strategy: The guided-discovery teaching strategy occurs where the lecturer provides illustrative materials to the students and assists them on how to use the materials according to specifications.


Teaching Strategies: They refer to all the steps, methods, techniques or process adopted by a lecturer to promote learning in learners. They are classroom techniques used to achieve stated and specific instructional objectives.

Skill Acquisition: Is a talent or ability that comes from training, teaching or practice, e.g entrepreneurial skills, Time management skills, conceptual skills problem solving skills etc.

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Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis
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