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THE ROLE OF NGOS IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN SOUTH WEST NIGERIA

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 56 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract ::   51 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM

Nongovernmental Organizations or Voluntary Organizations are not a new phenomenon and the concept of voluntary action is very ancient. According to Inamdar (1987), “During ancient and medieval times, voluntarism operated freely and exclusively in the fields of education, medicine, cultural promotion and even acted as succor in crises like droughts, floods, epidemics and foreign invasions”. Michael Bantons essay (1957) viewed that “Voluntary Associations become more common and significant as societies advance in technology, complexity and scale and these associations function as a means of organizing people in order to achieve new ends, such as the raising of capital, the regulation of prices and the provision of extra labour” (Stefanovic et al., 2010).

Non-government organizations (NGOs) were recognized very little until end of 1970s in the implementation of development interventions. This recognition was mostly in the field of service provision, short-term emergency and relief activities. (Murray and Overton, 2011) NGOs became the sweetheart of development when state-led development approaches through the course of decades 1970s and 1980s were largely failed. The NGOs perceived as the alternative for development, offering innovative and community-centered development approaches to service delivery, advocacy and community empowerment.(Nader & Foundation, 2016).

Poverty reduction means all formal activities geared towards lowering the rate and prevalence of poverty in the country. Poverty reduction strategies are a position introduced in the many countries by the World Bank that is a development plan borne out of collaborative efforts of a broad range of stakeholders in poverty reduction. Itis normally designed and implemented through the participation of all involved in one way or the other in poverty reduction and in other related issues (Royemomi, 2013:26). One of these stakeholders is the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO).(Cordeiro & Nyaruwata, 2016).

Poverty reduction, and its eventual elimination, is a central objective of development. In pursuit of solutions to developmental problems besetting the African continent, the donor community is increasingly regarding Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) as an important agency for empowering people thereby leading more effective and sustainable local development services than those promoted by the government (Bassey,2008). This stems from the fact that the state has failed to cater for the welfare of its people (Matenga, 2001 and Ibrahim & Hulme, 2010). However, there remains considerable doubt about how these objectives can be achieved in practice (Riddel.et.al, 1995).Development as one of the objectives of development agents has gained much attention from both developing and developed countries. Billions of dollars are donated every year to fight against poverty so that development can be achieved, but little is achieved(Daina, 2012).

Poverty is a worldwide phenomenon that affects people differently in different nations and continents. It upsets individuals in different depths and levels, at different eras and stages of life. Poverty differs in concentration and prevalence (Oyemomi, 2003). South Asia has the highest number of poor people in the world and about 32% of the world’s poor live in South Asia.

NGOs are not directly affiliated with any government but often have a significant impact on the socio-economic and political activity of the country or region involved. They are private organizations that pursue activities to relieve suffering, promote the interest of the poor, protect the environment, provide development programme. NGOs are non-profit organizations that are independent from government. They are typically value-based organization, which depend in whole or in part on charitable donations and voluntary services It was estimated that, the number of NGOs are somewhere between 6000 and 30,000 in developing countries (World Bank 2001:14; Akpanudoedehe, 2006).

In Nigeria, the network of NGOs is in the increase since the 1980s; and in recent decades, NGOs are networking with national and international agencies, with the aim of meeting national economic empowerment development strategy (NEEDS) and the millennium development goals (MDGs) by 2015. Specifically, NGOs in Nigeria contribute to national development in the areas of democracy and good governance, poverty alleviation, women developed, primary healthcare, STDs/AIDS and other health related matters, education and functional literacy, the development of the girl child, environment, conflict resolution, drug abuse and human rights (Akpanudoedehe, 2006). Despite government and NGOs efforts, human development index in the Nigeria especially in rural areas is far below countries like Kenya, Ghana and South Africa (UNDP, 2008: Agba, Ushie, Bassey & Agba, 2009). This may be because over 15 percent of total overseas development aid channel through NGOs are notoriously implemented (World Bank, 2001) or that NGOs are not sensitive to the felt needs of Nigerians. The concern of this study therefore is to investigate the extent to which NGOs in South West are contributing to rural transformation especially in the areas of economic, job creation, health and educational in development.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The wave of poverty, economic backwardness, dearth of infrastructure, health problem, unemployment, and natural disaster in rural and urban areas are currently some of the most serious problems in the world. Over 1.5 million people of the world’s population live below the poverty line of one dollar per day; out of which 250 million people are from Sub-Saharan African (UNDP, 2008; Agba, Ushie, Ushie, Bassey & Agba 2009). The Federal Office of Statistics report indicated that about 15 per cent of Nigerians in 1969 were poor; this number increased to 28 percent in 1980 and in 1985, it was 46 percent but dropped to 43 in 1992. The estimated incidence of poverty in 1996 was 66million out of 120 million Nigerians. It was also reported in 2003 that 41.6 percent of Nigerians are poor, of which majority are in rural communities (Aliyu, 2003).

As hunger, disease, outbreak of wars, incidence of kidnapping, natural disaster and massive poverty ravage the Nigerian Federation, government, international agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are leaving no stone unturned in fighting these social monster (Mohammed, 1991, Akpanudoedehe, 2006; Agba, Agba, Okoro & Agba, 2010). Just as globalization and international trade affects societies, NGOs have become increasingly influential in world affairs. They have become major players in the field of international development. Since the mid-1970s, NGOs in both developed and developing countries has experienced exponential growth. From 1970 to 1985 development aid disbursed by international NGOs increased by ten-fold. In 1992, international NGOs channeled over 7.6 billion us dollars of aid to developing countries. NGOs are also consulted by governments and international organizations like; the United Nations (UN), which have created associative status with them (World Bank 2001; Akpanudoedehe, 2006).

From the above existing gaps in literature, however, this study will try to investigate the relationship between the role of NGOs and poverty alleviation in South West Nigeria. It will examine the role of NGOs in economic development, the role of NGOs in food security, the role of NGOs in job creation and the role of NGOs in educational sector.

  1. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship that exists between NGOs and poverty alleviation.

The specific objectives of the study will be:

  1. To examine the role of NGOs in economic development.
  2. To assess the role of NGOs in food security.
  3. To ascertain the role of NGOs in job creation.
  4. To examine the role of NGOs in educational sector.

 

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. What are the roles of NGOs in economic development?
  2. What are the roles of NGOs in food security?
  3. What are the roles of NGOs in job creation?
  4. What are the roles of NGOs in educational sector?

 

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0 there is no significant relationship between NGOs and poverty alleviation.

H1 there is significant relationship between NGOs and poverty alleviation.

1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

NGOs are Non-Governmental Organization(s) known worldwide with relevant and essential objectives geared towards ameliorating problems in the society especially the rural areas. This is very important because it will uncover some of the roles of NGOs specifically in poverty alleviation in respect of the study.

The findings of the study will draw the attention of the NGOs towards awakening to their role in alleviating poverty in the society as recommendations will be given at the end of the study.

 

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is limited to only the NGOs and their roles towards poverty alleviation in the society. It will only covers the areas of economic development, job creation, food security, and educational sector.

 

  1. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

TIME CONSTRAINTS: One the challenges experienced by the researcher is the issue of time; the research will simultaneously engage in departmental activities like seminars and attendance to lectures. But the researcher was able to meet up with the deadline for the submission of the project.

FINANCIAL CONSTRAINTS: Every research work needs funding; however lack of adequate funds might affect the speed of the researcher in getting materials for completion of the project.

 

  1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Poverty

means not having enough money for basic needs such as fooddrinking watershelter, or toiletries. Many people in different countries live in poverty, especially in developing areas of West and Sub-Saharan AfricaLatin AmericaCaribbean and some parts of Asia.

 

Development

The processes that generate, shape, and reshape the nervous system. Personal development, or self-help. Prenatal development, the process in which a human embryo or fetus gestates during pregnancy.

NGOs

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a group of people from different countries acting together, but not connected with the government of any country. Usually non-governmental organizations are non-profit - that is, they are trying to do something other than make money for the people who run them.

Alleviation

Relief or mitigation. The act of reducing pain or anything else unpleasant; easement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

Abasiekong, E. M. (1975). Mass Participation: An Essential Element

for Development Programmes in Developing Countries. Calabar: Scholar's Press.

Abasiekong, E. M. (1982). Integrated Rural Development in the 3rd

World Its Concepts, Problems and Prospects. New York: Exposition Press.

United Nations (1982). United Nations Report 1982 on the World

 Social Situation. Geneva: UN Press.

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (1971). The

Integrated Approach to Rural Development in Africa. New York: UN press.

Ekpoh, I, J. (1994) Physiography, Climate and Vegetation. In S. W.

Petters, E. R. Iwok, & 0. E. Uya (Ed), Akwa Ibom State: Land of Promise. Lagos: Gabuno Publishing.

Fisk, E.K. (1972).Development Goals in rural Melanesia. In E. M.

Abasiekong (ed), Mass Participation: An Essential Element for Rural Development Programmes in Developing Countries. Calabar: Scholars Press.

 


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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:56
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis, Abstract
Price:₦3,000
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