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# STUDENT CONCEPT OF FORCE; THE IMPORTANCE AND MISCONCEPTION OF UNDERSTANDING NEWTON’S THIRD LAW

### Project Information:

Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 50 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references ::   2,751 people found this useful

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

It is evident from the literature that students of different educational backgrounds and different ages have basic preconceptions or misconceptions about force and motion concepts that affect student’ further learning or achievements (Clement,1982; Eckstein & Shemesh, 1993a and 1993b; Halloun & Hestenes 1985;Maloney, 1984; Palmer, 1997; Poon, 1993; Thijs, 1992, Bransford et al., 1999; Demirci, 2001). So far, much of the research carried out that examines computer use and student achievement, seems to emphasize that there is a positive correlation between these variables.

Some would argue that the normal force can be the Newton’s Third Law reaction to weight, if an operational definition of weight (essentially “what a scale reads”, or what might be called load in engineering) is being used instead of the gravitational definition (W = Fg = mg). Taibu, Rudge & Schuster (2015) suggest that the operational definition is not only acceptable, but even preferable. However, we teach the gravitational definition exclusively to our students, and use it in applications such as free-body diagrams. In this language, “the weight of the book” means “the gravitational force of the Earth on the book”. When we treat Newton’s Third Law, we emphasise that it describes an interaction between two objects where the two forces involved are of the same type.

Results from research on student understanding in Newton’s laws indicate that certain incorrect ideas about the physical world are common among students of a wide variety of educational levels and ages. A number of studies have been performed to gain a better understanding of how students think about the real world. Most research about Newton’s laws is designed to detect student misconceptions or alternative conceptions. Studies show that students have an alternative concept of force and individual students consistently applied alternate concepts of force in different contexts about Newton’s laws (Brooke & Etkina, 2009; Viennot, 1979; Thornton, 1997; Champagne & Anderson, 1980; McCloskey, Caramazza, & Green, 1980; Boyle & Maloney, 1991). Forming a meaningful understanding of Newton’s laws of motion is formidably difficult for beginners. A variety of teaching approaches have been developed to try to assist students to develop a meaningful understanding. In this study, we focus on students’ misconceptions in Newton’s laws at the beginning and at the end of a formal teaching

1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study on student concept of force; the importance and misconception of understanding Newton’s third law came about as a result of students not having a proper knowledge or understanding to solve problems due to inability of the teacher to teach them to appropriately and also using illustration and instructional materials, since pictures stays longer in the memories of students than just spoken words. Finally, most of the research has been carried out Newton’s third law but not even a single research has been carried out on student concept of force; the importance and misconception of understanding Newton’s third law.

1. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine student concept of force; the importance and misconception of understanding Newton’s third law. Other specific objectives of the study include:

1. to identify the reason why there is variations in the student concept of force especially the Newton’s third law.
2. to determine the effect of illustration and instructional material on teaching and learning of Newton’s third law.
3. to determine the effect of practical on the teaching and learning of Newton’s third law.

1.4   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1. What reason for variations in the student concept of force especially the Newton’s third law?
2. What is the effect of illustration and instructional materials on the teaching and learning of Newton’s third law?
3. What is the effect of practical on the teaching and learning of Newton’s third law?

1.5   STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0       there is no variation in concept among student as regards the Newton’s third law.

H1             there is variation in concept among student as regards the Newton’s third law.

1.7   SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on student concept of force; the importance and misconception of understanding Newton’s third law will be of immense benefit to the entire secondary schools in the Country. The findings will educate the teachers within the country to know the concept of Newton’s third law and also to understand the method of teaching mostly in subject that needs practical and demonstration just like Physic, Chemistry etc. Finally the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge in this field of study and provide a basis for further research.

1.7   SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on student concept of force; importance and misconception of understanding Newton’s third law will focus on the ss3 senior science students in secondary schools.

1.8   LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.9   DEFINITION OF TERMS

Student    Is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.

Concept  An abstract idea.

Force            A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object.

Importance     The state or fact of being of great significance or value.

Misconception       A view or opinion that is incorrect because based on faulty thinking or understanding.

Understanding                        Perceive the intended meaning of (words, a language, or a speaker).

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 Format: ms word Chapter: 1-5 Pages: 50 Attribute: Questionnaire, Data Analysis,abstract, table of content, references Price: ₦3,000