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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 67 ::   Attributes: ANALYSIS OF RESULT
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Air quality continues to be among the top environmental concerns in Nigeria.In nigeria, where majority of  the rural population uses charcoal, very little is known about the impacts of the life-cycle of the fuel on the livelihoods of the producers, who endure significant health, safety, and environmental risks for marginal gain in a highly lucrative industry. Population increases and deviations from the energy ladder model suggest that charcoal demand for heating and cooking in Sub-Saharan Africa will continue to increase through the year 2030 and beyond.Charcoal production industry can use an air monitoring program to assist in addressing its environmental responsibilities, and its responsibility as a local community member. Industry performance monitoring enables industrial plant to be managed in an environmentally sustainable manner .

A survey of air quality in a charoal production site  Amukpe sapele  and environs in the Nigerdelta area of Nigeria revealed that air quality in the area is affected to varying degrees by industrial activities in the production site.

 This report covers a brief background of the study, state of the problems,  aims and objectives of the work done, the scope of the research  and also the relevance of work done with regards to the analysis of emissions produced by a charcoal production facility located in amukpe sapele delta state.  An accredited environmentalist was involved as a third party.Consulting an independent third party to perform the measurements give more credibleresults and provide unavailable equipment required for the analysis.

The aim and purpose of the project is the evaluate the concentration of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants present within a 2km radius of the charcoal production facility.  The significance of this experiment is to detect if  air in the surrounding environment is polluted with emitted gase from the production site,  which can be detrimental to human health. A survey of air quality in amukpe sapele and environs in the Nigerdelta area of Nigeria revealed that air quality in the area is affected to varyingdegrees by industrial, human and natural activities.


The discussed results indicate that a local charcoal production facility can besustainable and without a significant environmental impact in sense of its emissions.However some deeper environmental performance evaluation could take place with theavailability of measurement equipment with a wider measurement range, higher precision and more suitable for measurements in a charcoal factory. Also, the results indicates large amounts of concentration of pollutants within the immediate environment of the immediate environment. It is recommended that charcoal producers in amukpe sapele waer appropriate PPE’s and follow WHO guidelines and recommendations to control and reduce emissions.






Charcoal is a woodfuel produced in rural areas and consumed in cities and towns. Some ofthe factors influencing the choice of using charcoal instead of firewood in urban areas include:Charcoal has a higher calorific value per unit weight that firewood, it is therefore moreeconomic to transport charcoal over longer distances as compared to firewood; Storage of charcoal takes less room as compared to firewood; Charcoal is not liable to deterioration byinsects and fungi which attack firewood; Charcoal is almost smokeless and sulphur – free, assuch it is ideal fuel for towns and cities.It is estimated that approximately 1.5 billion people in developing countries derive atleast 90% of their energy requirements from wood and charcoal. Another one billionpeople meet at least 50% of their energy needs this way. In most developing countries,90% of the people depend on fuelwood as their chief source of fuel and each year theaverage user burns anywhere from a fifth of a ton, in extremely poor, wood shortareas such as India, to well over a ton in parts of Africa and South Asia (GFC,undated). In 1999, it was estimated that 1.9 billion m³ of wood was burned for cooking, toprovide heat or to manufacture charcoal for later burning (FAO, 1999).


Large-scale charcoal production, primarily in sub Saharan Africa, has been a

growing concern due to its threat of deforestation, land degradation and climate changeimpacts. It is cited as the most environmentally devastating phase of this traditionalenergy supply chain, and despite increasing per capita income, higher electrificationrates, and significant renewable energy potential, charcoal still remains the dominantsource of cooking and heating energy for eighty percent of households in Sub SaharanAfrica (SSA) (Arnold et al, 2006; Zulu and Richardson, 2013). As a traditional fuel thathas been used for hundreds of years, it serves as a lifeline for the rapidly increasingpopulations in the urban centers of the region, in addition to potentially significantportions of the rural population. Due to its low cost compared to other fuels likekerosene and liquefied petroleum gas, as well as other factors that will bediscussed in the coming sections, the demand for charcoal is expected to continue risingdramatically in the coming decades, despite best efforts by modern energy advocates.Charcoal use in SSA is predicted to double by 2030, with over 700 million Africansrelying on it as a durable, preferred, and cheap source of energy. With a forecastedincrease in consumption, there is a great need to identify real versus perceived energyfutures with respect to charcoal. Research has shown that large-scale transitions tomodern energy sources will only occur once a certain income threshold is met, whileother studies have indicated that even with large increases in earned income, the largemajority of many SSA countries continue to utilize charcoal. If a continued reliance oncharcoal is suggested, there is an even greater need to evaluate and address the

environmental and social issues associated with this highly influential, and largely

informal, industry.

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals,particulate matter, or biological materials that causeharm or discomfort to humans or other livingorganisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. It can bedefined as the presence in the outdoor or indooratmosphere of one or more gaseous or particulatecontaminants in quantities, characteristics and ofduration such as to be injurious to human, plant oranimal life or to property, or which unreasonablyinterferes with the comfortable enjoyment of life andproperty (Odigure, 1998). It has been difficult toachieve cooperation for air pollution control indeveloping countries like Nigeria, whose chief concernis to provide such basic need as food, shelter andemployment for her populace.

A substance in the air that can cause harm tohumans and the environment is known as an airpollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solidparticles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they maybe natural or man-made (Anderson, 2005). Theatmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseoussystem that is essential to support life on planet Earth.Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has

long been recognized as a threat to human health aswell as to the Earth's ecosystems. Indoor air pollutionand urban air quality are listed as two of the world'sworst pollution problems in the 2008 BlacksmithInstitute World's Worst Polluted Places report(Anderson, 2005).



The pollutants emitted from a charcoal production site have the ability to cause adverse health affects such as respiratory diseases. The charcoal producers in this region are not well enlightened and do not consider the the dangers these emissions possess if the enter the environment in significant levels. Hence, they would not be able tackle the problem of air pollution and green house gas emissions produced by the pryolysis of charcoal. Worryingly, the government through the medium of environmental protection agencies do not pay much attention to these process produces considerable amounts of green house gases and suspended particle matter which are discharged into natural receptors, (majorly  air)  leading to major environmental problems in the long run.


A review of the literature surrounding charcoal supply chains in Sub-Saharan

Africa paints a clear picture that the demand for this energy source will not remain

stagnant, but will increase dramatically through the year 2030 . Even in countrieswhere electrification rates are at their highest, as in  Ghana, 60-70% of thepopulation still use charcoal for cooking and heating , a finding identified in numerousstudies that deviates from the traditional energy ladder model. Electricity rarely replacescharcoal as a fuel, though increases in income lead to higher usage of more refined fuels,like kerosene and LPG, to replace biomass; this helps to illustrate the negative, and oftenmisleading, correlation found between charcoal and electrification. In some of the leastdeveloped countries, like Liberia, where less than one percent of the population isconnected to grid electricity, 95% rely on traditional biomass fuels in the form of wood and charcoal. In the growing rural areas, charcoal is the primary fuelused for heating and cooking, as poor infrastructure, high cost, and low-income levelslimit market growth for refined cooking fuels.


Health-related impacts associated with woodfuels have traditionally focused on

effects from their consumption. Indoor air pollution (IAP) is the primary concern giventhe high concentrations of smoke and particulate matter released during woodfuelcombustion. Smith et al (2002) documented trends in respiratory illness amongdisproportionate numbers of women and children as a result of IAP from woodfuelcombustion throughout the developing world. However, little is known about the nhealth impacts endured by charcoal producers during extraction and production phases. For example, it is known that pyrolysis, the process utilized for the production ofcharcoal, releases significant amounts of gaseous by-products, including carbonmonoxide, sulfur dioxide and others  known to be deadly to humans in moderateconcentrations through the use of dose-response studies. Rural producers are knownto work within close proximity to high temperature kilns that off-gas these highly toxiccompounds, generating potential high risk for poisoning. In addition, use of primitivetools can potentially lead to moderate or severe injuries, which can prove fatal in ruralareas that lack access to adequate medical care. Academic literature and governmentreports refer to the working conditions of charcoal producers as unsafe;government officials and research papers alike mention these ‘hazards’ in passing.

Additional indicators of social threats include widespread child labor, gender differencesin education and production outcomes, extreme price variability often at the hands of merchants and the lack of potential for poverty alleviation in current methods of production. The lack of regulation in the charcoal industry creates the highest risk of

exploitation and safety hazards, yet no studies have investigated in-depth the healthand social risks associated with the production of this highly demanded fuel.


1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study

The aim of this study is to determine the presence of air pollutants in significant concentrations and its spatial distribution to its surrounding environment along a two kilometre radius and its effects  on in one of it.

The specific objectives are to

  1. Determine the presence of air pollutants in gaseous emissions discharged from a charcoal production facility. 
  2. Run ambient air quality analysis to determine the spatial distribution of these air pollutants in the surrounding environment over a 2km radius.
  3. Compare results of the study to national and international standard such as the world health organisation and draw out conclusions.
  4. Suggest solutions to the problems of these air pollutants to the surroundings and give recommendations and control methods.



This study will help confirm the true distribution of air pollutants discharged from t production of charcoal in the sampled community. The concentration, translocation and distribution of the specified air pollutants in relation to the  distance will also be determined; this should help complete a holistic pollution cycle analysis.Results of this research project should further serve as baseline studies for further research work on charcoal production in amukpe sapele and studies on the effects of the charcoal industry’s activities.



1.5.1 Analysis of Emissions And Controls

There are five types of products and byproducts from charcoal production operations: charcoal,noncondensible gases (carbon monoxide [CO], carbon dioxide [CO2], methane, and ethane), pyroacids(primarily acetic acid and methanol), tars and heavy oils, and water. With the exception of charcoal, all

of these materials are emitted with the kiln exhaust. Product constituents and the distribution of theseconstituents vary, depending on raw materials and carbonization parameters. Organics and CO arenaturally combusted to CO2 and water before leaving the retort. Because the extent of this combustionvaries from plant to plant, emission levels are quite variable.ethanol, and polycyclic organic matter. If uncombusted, tars may solidify to form SPMemissions, and pyroacids may form aerosol emissions.

The charcoal briquetting/stacking process is also a potential source of emissions. The crushing,screening, and handling of the dry raw charcoal may produce PM and PM-10 emissions. Briquettepressing and drying may be a source of VOC emissions, depending on the type of binder and otheradditives used.Continuous production of charcoal is more amenable to emission control than batch productionbecause emission composition and flow rate are relatively constant. Emissions from continuous multiple earth charcoal kilns generally are controlled with afterburners. Cyclones, which commonlyare used for product recovery, also reduce PM emissions from continuous kilns.

 Afterburning isestimated to reduce emissions of PM, CO, and VOC by at least 80 percent. Control of emissions frombatch-type charcoal kilns is difficult because the process and, consequently, the emissions are cyclic.Throughout a cycle, both the emission composition and flow rate change. Batch kilns do not typicallyhave emission control devices, but some may use after-burners.Particulate matter emissions from briquetting operations can be controlled with a centrifugalcollector (65 percent control) or fabric filter (99 percent control).




Charcoal is produced in slow pyrolysis carbonisation process. The charcoal yieldbeing dependent on such process parameters as the final temperature, the biomassparticle size, the heating rate and the reaction atmosphere (Elyounssi et al., 2012).Charcoal contain a large number of pollutants and known health hazards:particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide, sulfur oxides (mainly fromcoal), formaldehyde, and polycyclic organic matter, including carcinogens such asbenzo[a]pyrene and benzene (5-8). Exposure to indoor air pollution from the combustion of solidfuels has been implicated, with varying degrees of evidence, as a causal agent of several diseasesin developing countries, including acute respiratory infection (ARI) and otitis media (middle earinfection), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer (for coal smoke), asthma,nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, tuberculosis.

      In amukpe sapele, charcoal is traditionally made in small, simple batch-type kilns where the parametermanagement and control is very limited.The charcoal production feed can be a wide range of materials. Different types ofbiomass feed lead to the production of different charcoal grades – basic grade biochar,premium grade biochar and charcoal. The used biomass can be starting frombiodegradable waste from local waste collection services to hardwood (Schmidt et al.,2012). The use of biodegradable waste for production of valuable materials and energyis highly recommendable in order to reach the EU targets for minimization of the shareof landfilled biodegradable waste as well as to avoid resource scarcity (Pubule et al.,2014).In the early 1940’s the most successful charcoalproduction technologies were developed - the Lambiotte and SIFIC process. This is acontinuous carbonization process where the retort is filled continuously with wood fromthe top, while downstream simultaneously carbonisation takes place. The cooledcharcoal is removed from the bottom. The process is energy autonomous gaining thenecessary heat from burning gases attained from pyrolysis. The gases go through acondenser and afterwards are blown in the bottom of the retort where it cools the freshcharcoal while preheating the gases (Vertes et al., 2010). This technology has muchhigher process control and it offers the possibility of producing charcoal more efficientlyand with higher increased yields then the traditional batch methods. This leads to theconclusion that with an increased interest of charcoal production this kind oftechnologies have to be evaluated form the environmental performance aspects.

The dryingof the firewood is crucial for proper functioning of the retort torch, where the excesspyrolysis gases are burnt before emitting to the atmosphere.

 The fresh wood is receivedwith around 55% moisture content, while the technological process requires the moisturecontent of the input fuel to be below 25%. The drying takes place in four chamber dryersheated with wood-fuelled water boilers.The retort is operated under experimental conditions in order to carry out therelevant measurements that describe the production facilities’ environmentalperformance regarding the emissions. The discovered results can be used to evaluatewhether there is place for charcoal production in an economically developed countrywhere the environmental performance is of high importance, and it is strictly regulated.

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 87 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis  ::   251 engagements

ABSTRACT This study was intended to evaluate the consequences of deforestation on rural household income. This study was guided by the following objectives; to find out the causes of deforestation in...Continue reading »

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