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Project Topic:

COMPETENCE AND APPROPRIACY IN THE TEACHING OF VOWEL SOUND /3:/ BY ENGLISH TEACHERS IN ILE-IFE

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 Format: MS WORD ::   Chapters: 1-5 ::   Pages: 70 ::   Attributes: Questionnaire, Data Analysis
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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

The competency and appropriacy in the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ by english teachers today in most schools has increased overtime in Nigeria.

According to Gilbert (2008) stated that the English prosodic system, emphasizes the various interdependent levels of pronunciation: thought groups, focus word, stress, and peak syllable, which makes the rhythm of the English language. To facilitate the clear pronunciation of new vocabulary and avoid miscommunication in extended discourse, students need to have an understanding of how to pronounce the peak vowel sound /3:/ clearly in the stressed syllable of a word, such as the /eɪ/ sound in information, and understand the other syllables in this word have reduced vowel sound /3:/s. One technique to help students learn the vowel sound /3:/s is to associate each vowel sound /3:/ with a specific word. All dictionaries include key words such as hot and father to demonstrate the /ɑ/ sound. However, those words are sometimes difficult to remember (especially for students at lower levels) and to reference when discussing the pronunciation of words. The Color Vowel, a visual aid developed by Taylor and Thompson (1999/2015), connects the vowel sound /3:/s of English to key words and phrases and provides shorthand for teachers and learners to talk about pronunciation with ease. This tool can be introduced to students even at the lowest levels and used throughout the class or program to focus learners’ attention on the stressed vowel sound /3:/s in new words, thus helping them hear the stress that establishes the rhythmical patterns of spoken English. Students are introduced not only to the sounds but also to the positions of the sounds because the chart shape represents the mouth to show the sounds in relation to whether the sound is pronounced in the front, central part, or back of the mouth and whether the jaw is high or low. Taylor and Thompson (n.d.) provide sample lessons to introduce the Color Vowel Chart at different levels. At lower levels, teachers can introduce a few sounds at a time.

1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ILE-IFE

Ile-Ife, the cradle of the Yorubas, the city of survivors, spiritual seat of the Yorubas, where the dawn of the day was first experienced, the source, the head of the whole universe, the land of the most ancient day, the home of divinities is to the people of Ife “ILURUN” i.e Gateway to heaven. Ile-Ife is located in the South Western part of Nigeria, West Africa.

The history of Ile-Ife, the ancient city of Yorubaland is mythical, like the biblical account of the creation of the world, but it is so far unwritten. Since their great foreparents are impossible to come by. Traditional is therefore handed over from one generation to another orally.

The history of Ife can also be chronologically divided into three periods: The first Ife was known as Ife Oodaye, Ile owuro, ibiti oju ti mo, that is, the land of most ancient days where the dawn of the day was first experienced. The inhabitants of Ife Oodaye were believed to be powerful giants with mystic abilities. Tradition claims that the life of this community came to an end as a result of flood which flushed the whole area occupied by the community. Those who survived the deluge formed the nucleus of the community that formed the second era of the history of Ife.
The second Ife was called Ife Ooyelagbo, that is, the city of the survivors. Tradition maintains that the second Ife lasted until the arrival of some strangers who entered the city of Ile-Ife from the “East”. An attempt made by the strangers to seize power from the aborigines on the land led to a bloody struggle between the strangers led by the Oduduwa on one hand and the aborigines led by Obatala, eventually Oduduwa and his groups won the war.

The third Ife is called Ile-Ife founded with the arrival of Oduduwa and his groups. It is believed that Oduduwa, the founder of the Yoruba raced emerged after the deluge, he (Oduduwa) and his followers descended on to dry land by means of chain ropes from their life boat (hence the saying Oduduwa afi won ron). And later anchored on Oke-Ora (Oranfe Hill) between Ile-Ife and Itagunmodi on the Ife-Ilesa road, from where they came to Moore quarter in Ile-Ife.

 Nowadays, written documents claim that Oduduwa migrated from Mecca to Egypt. From Egypt to the Sudan, he was said to have traveled down to Ile-Ife, Nigeria through Nupe Land in about 900 A.D. or 1000 A.D. The exact time is not yet known and that he was the acceptable leader with a personality which dominated the scene. He conquered the people he met there and established a Yoruba dynasty. Prominent among those people he met at Ile-Ife were Oreluere, a very powerful wiseman and Orunmila, Ifa Priest also known as “Agbonmiregun”. For instance, Agbonmiregun later became Oduduwa consultant.

Although some of the stories have been modified and universally accepted. The most universally accepted is that Oduduwa is the father of the Yoruba. He is the ancestorial father of any Ooni or Oni in Ile-Ife (i.e. he who owns the land of Ife) that ever reigned or will reign in Ile-Ife. The present day Royal compounds in Ile ife, (Geesi, Ogboru, Lafogido and Ogboru) are present day descendatns of Oranmiyan. Oba Sijuwade is from the Ogboru ruling clan.

In a nutshell, tradition holds it generally that Ile-Ife is the cradle of the Yoruba and the capital of Yoruba kingdom before the emergence of Oyo Empire.

Ile-Ife has earned many enviable appellations, viz:
Ile-Ife, ile Owuro Ile-Ife, the land of the most ancient days
Ile-Ife, Oodaye Ile-Ife, where the word of creation took place
Ile-Ife, Ibi ti ojumo ti mowa Ile-Ife, where the dawn of the day was first experienced Ile-Ife, Ori aye gbogbo Ile-Ife, head of the whole universe Ile-Ife, Ooye Lagbo Ile-Ife the city of the Survivors.
Ife East Local Government is the seat of Ife Traditional Council under the leadership of His Majesty, the Ooni of Ife. The Council consists of all the traditional rulers of Ife North, Ife South, Ife Central and Ife East Local Governments.

There are traditional chiefs who perform different functions in the day to day running of the affairs of Ile-Ife.
1. Obalufe - In charge of Iremo quarters
2 Obajio - In charge of Ilare quarters
3 Obaloran - In charge of Ilode quarters
4 Waasin - In charge of Ilare quarters
5 Obalaaye - In charge of Iraye quarters
6 Akogun - In charge of Okerewe quarters
7 Jagunosin - Appointed purely on merit
8 Owajesi - Appointed purely on merit at community level
There are many renowned festivals but the Edi and Olojo are the most popular. They both come up once a year.
OLOJO FESTIVAL: It is the biggest annual festival of the Ifes. On this occasion, Ooni appears after about seven days of seclusion, completed, not communicating with anyone except the ‘spirits’. He wears the special beaded Oduduwas original crown called “Aare” only once a year during this Olojo festival as he leads the crowd to Okemogun shrine.

The LOKOLOKOs are his body guards during the Olojo Festival. Time for the festival is indicated by the sun’s movement in about the month of October from the West to the East. Only the Olojo chief priest identifies the particular day to celebrate the festival.
EDI FESTIVAL:- This festival comes up once a year and for a period of seven days. Drumming is prohibited at Ile-Ife during this period. It is a period to discipline thieves. In the olden days during this period, youths song and rush to the houses of known thieves such thieves are exposed and their houses demolished. Finally, a man called ‘Tele’ carries the rubbish with prayers being offered by the populace with hope for a good future.
Although it may be an exaggeration, but it is believed that out of the 365 days that makes a year, it is only one day that the Ifes have no festival to perform. Thus, the popular saying of “Irun Imole, Igba Imole” (i.e about 600 gods to worship during the year. Among other festivals are the Orungbe, Itapa, Orisa Oko among others.

1.3 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

What really instigated the study on the competence and appropriacy in the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ by English teachers in Ile-Ife was as result of mass failure in WASSCE and other external examination in English language. It is evident from the terminal examination that most of students always fail vowel sound /3:/; as result of this, the federal government through the ministry of education has put in a lot of effort to control the above incidence from happening.

1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main aim of the research work is to examine the competence and appropriacy in the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ by English teachers in Ile-Ife. Other specific objectives of study include:

  1. To examine the effect of teaching of vowel sound /3:/ in Ile-Ife on the academic performance of students
  2. To examine the relationship between African languages and vowel sound /3:/s
  3. To investigate on the factors affecting the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ in most schools in Ile-Ife
  4. To proffer solution to the above problems

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The study came up with research questions so as to ascertain the above stated objectives. The specific research questions are stated below as follows:

  1. What is the effect of teaching of vowel sound /3:/ in Ile-Ife on the academic performance of students?
  2. Is there any relationship between African languages and vowel sound /3:/s?
  3. What are the factors affecting the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ in most schools in Ile-Ife?

1.6 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

H0: the competence and appropriacy in the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ by English teachers in Ile-Ife is low

H1: the competence and appropriacy in the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ by English teachers in Ile-Ife is high

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The study on the competence and appropriacy in the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ by English teachers in Ile-Ife will be of immense benefit to the federal government of Nigeria, the people of ile-ife and other research students that wishes to carryout similar research on the above topic as it will discuss the effect of teaching of vowel sound /3:/ in Ile-Ife on the academic performance of students, the factors affecting the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ in most schools in Ile-Ife and finally proffer solution to problem of mass failure in English language in schools in Ile-Ife.

1.8 SCOPE OF STUDY

The study on the competence and appropriacy in the teaching of vowel sound /3:/ by teachers is limited to Ile-Ife as the case study.

1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY

Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS

VOWEL SOUND /3:/: In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, with two competing definitions. In the more common phonetic definition, a vowel is a sound pronounced with an open vocal tract, so that the tongue does not touch the lips, teeth, or roof of the mouth, such as the English "ah" /ɑː/ or "oh" /oʊ/. 

 

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Paper Information

Format:ms word
Chapter:1-5
Pages:70
Attribute:Questionnaire, Data Analysis
Price:₦3,000
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