THE VARIOUS TYPES OF REFERENCING AND HOW TO REFERENCE PROPERLY

November 22, 2016. IMPERIAL WRITERS

In research today the ability to cite and reference properly has been seen as the major challenges faced by most research students in various institutions. A good project writing, seminar, term paper, MBA/MSC thesis must be able to speak for itself through good referencing. Good referencing plays a significant role in the check for plagiarism; we all know that plagiarism has become taboo in the research world. Before we go into the various types of references, lets first of all discuss on how to cite and reference properly; it is expected in research writing that all the name of the authors that carried out a research work on the project topic you choose or similar topic must appear in your references. It is therefore advised that the name of a particular author in your research work that could not be found in your references should be completely removed from the review or the research must cite the author in the references; that is to say in essence that all the names on your review must appear on your references.

There are various types of referencing in research work but we shall consider the five major types of referencing viz:

  1. APA
  2. MLA
  3. OXFORD
  4. HARVARD
  5. CHICAGO

APA REFERENCING: In research, the APA (American psychological association) referencing style is the most used. In APA style the name of the author comes first, followed by the work done, the state of publication and the name of the publisher(s)

For example: uniprojectmaterials 1990. Project topics and research materials. Uphills, new Rome: Androameda and stones

MLA REFERENCING: in this style of referencing, if for instance two authors carried out a research on a particular topic, the last names of the authors and the year of publication will be picked. If the authors are more than two, only the last name of the author will be taken followed by et al. for example:

Pitman,Browning. Still we rise: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. uniprojectmaterials,     1985.

If the authors are more than two:

Pitman, et al. Still we rise: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business. uniprojectmaterials,     1985.

OXFORD REFERENCING: in this type of referencing the year comes at the end, for example:

Speshy abel, S., Trading business Encounters: From the Euphrates to the Indus in the Bronze Age, New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2004.

HARVARD REFERENCING: this type of referencing is mostly used in the universities to cite various information sources. The referencing is usually short and precise for example:

Omega, F. (2004). Time series analysis. New York: Scribner.

CHICAGO REFERENCING: well this type of referencing is regard as the manual kind of referencing just like a bibliography an example of Chicago referencing is seen below:

Read, Richard. Art and its Discontents: The Early Life of Adrian Stokes. Aldershot, England: Ashgate, 2002.